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Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Renewable fuel through artificial leaf technology

Sometimes the progress of science and technology can amaze us, like what is being studied by scientists at Cambridge University. Although this can be said as an initial stage, this could be a technological breakthrough to produce renewable energy.
An illustration of the artificial leaf. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/326HUk1)
Recently, scientists developed artificial leaves that can suck in sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce synthesis gas, a gas that can be used as an alternative to fossil fuels.

Chemists at Cambridge University want to develop a device that is inspired by the natural events of photosynthesis. After seven years of research, the experts created what is called an artificial leaf. The research itself has been published in Nature Materials journal.

Like real leaves, these artificial leaves do not need bright sunlight to function. According to scientists, the leaves will work efficiently even in rainy or cloudy weather. In other words, the technology will not be affected by the season.
Cambridge's artificial leaf uses two perovskite light absorbers and a cobalt catalyst to convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into syngas. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2JIabHn)
"We can use it from morning to night anywhere in the world," said Virgil Andrei, a Ph.D. candidate student who is also the lead author of the study. As reported by the Iflscience page, the artificial leaf uses carbon nanotubes with two light absorbers combined with a cobalt-made of catalyst.

After being immersed in water, the reaction will begin with one light absorber using a catalyst to produce oxygen, while the other absorbers carry out chemical reactions to reduce carbon dioxide and water to carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

These three gases are the basis of synthesis gas. The synthesis gas has about half of the natural energy density, but it has several uses in the production of liquid fuels and is considered a renewable energy source.

"You may not have heard of syngas itself but every day, you consume products that were created using it. Being able to produce it sustainably would be a critical step in closing the global carbon cycle and establishing a sustainable chemical and fuel industry," added senior author Professor Erwin Reisner from Cambridge's Department of Chemistry

"What we'd like to do next, instead of first making syngas and then converting it into liquid fuel, is to make the liquid fuel in one step from carbon dioxide and water," added Reisner. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | NATURE MATERIALS | IFLSCIENCE | SCIENCE DAILY | NEW ATLAS]
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Saturday, May 25, 2019

After 1 year in space, how's the Tesla Roadster now?

As we all know, that a year ago SpaceX first launched Falcon Heavy rockets into space. The launch of the rocket was a success, especially when the Falcon Heavy also brought the latest projects of SpaceX, Starship and Super Heavy with the contents of Elon Musk's personal Tesla Roadster on those journey.
The Tesla Roadster which tipped to be the fastest electric car ever made. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2EeWtcj)
The luxury car also carries a Starman mannequin that sits behind the wheel and flies through space. How's the Tesla Roadster now? As quoted from BGR, on Friday, Feb 2, 2019, the whereisroadster page reveals where and the latest news from those Tesla Roadster.
The Tesla Roadster which is equipped with an astronaut mannequin named Starman while on a Falcon Heavy rocket into space (6/2). (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2Q1qUXZ)
Looking at the statistics of the page, the Tesla Roadster position is currently 226 million miles from Earth and 163 million miles from Mars. In fact, there are reports of the Tesla Roadster speed on those space journey, ie 5,149 miles per hour.

Of course, for a car in general those speed number is very fast and won't slow down anytime soon. In total the distance traveled by the Tesla Roadster has gone as far as 473.3 million miles. It was also mentioned, it took around 557 days for the Tesla Roadster car to go around the Sun once.
The steering wheel of the Tesla Roadster which is equipped with astronaut mannequins while on a Falcon Heavy rocket (6/2). The rocket was successfully launched on Wednesday (7/2) morning or Tuesday at 3:45 p.m. Florida, United States.. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2Q1qUXZ)
This car is also projected to continue to travel through space for a very long time. As reported by LiveScience, scientists believe, this Roadster will return to Earth later or maybe enter Venus. But reportedly, it took millions of years for the car to come back again or instead switch to another planet.
It should be noted, when the Tesla Roadster car finished its journey later, of course the shape is not as good as when it leaving the Earth. Yes, this Tesla Roadster might look good while left the Earth, but given the hard and unpredictable conditions of the outer space it predicted could make the car break or even Starman mannequins also damaged.

The question now is actually whether the purpose of those Roadster was included in the space trip? Now, We don't want to speculate on this, and we will let you answer it by yourself. Peace and Out. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE]
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Friday, October 12, 2018

3 major scientific issues that still be mysterious!

Scientists continue to find many scientific issues that sometimes those issues can change the entire of our world's faces. Even so, the scientists continue to try uncover the mysteries about this world but still could not give a detailed explanations, and sometimes some of them then are kept those secret from the public, why?
Our Earth. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2pKiIPA)
As reported from the Dailystar on (06/12/2017), here are 3 major scientific issues that still be mysteries and kept on secret so that human does not panic!

3. Climate change
Many people think that climate change only makes the earth hotter, but it turns out that Climate Change or climate change is a disaster. Climate change is a real disaster, where humans burn the fuel, factories blow smoke into the sky and release carbon dioxide which makes the Earth's surface warmer. According to a study by scientists from Ohio, the United States that climate change takes hundreds of years to make it stable again.
One of the causes of climate change. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2IO0Lbu)

2. Human knowledge about the Universe is still very minimal
NASA sent astronauts to explore the moon, and humans on earth assume that humans have managed to know a lot about the universe. In fact it is not, according to a report from the United States Astronomy Agency, new humans are able to explore the universe in less than 5 percent. This means that the remaining 95 percent is still a mystery and it is the task of humans to be able to solve it in the future.
Illustration of our existence in the universe. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2IO0Lbu)

1. Mass extinction will occur once more
According to the Saintis report, this earth has experienced at least 5 mass extinctions caused by climate change, the ice age, to extreme weather. Well, the dangers of scientists believe that civilization will now lead to the sixth mass extinction. True or not, scientists are referring to current conditions of the earth and climate such as the amount of pollution, ice on both poles is starting to melt, forest loss and heat waves hit several regions in the Middle East.
Illustration of mass extinction. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2IO0Lbu)
The purpose of being kept secret here is not about its existence which is deliberately hidden, but its real contents are still an unsolved mystery.. What do you think? *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | DAILYSTAR]
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Friday, August 31, 2018

Laziness was the causes of ancient human extinction?

Homo erectus first appeared two million years ago and went extinct around 50,000 to 100,000 years ago and was the first early hominid to become a true global explorer. They are known to migrate from Africa to Eurasia, then spread to Georgia, Sri Lanka, China and Indonesia.
An illustration of ancient human. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2ODr59N)
However, according to a recent study published in the PLOS One journal on July 27, 2018, the Homo erectus species turned out to be quite lazy and reluctant to adapt to environmental changes compared to other hominids - such as Neanderthals.

As quoted from IFLScience! on Friday, August 10, 2018, which reported that archaeologists from the Australian National University analyzed thousands of newly discovered artifacts and excavated from excavation sites in the Arabian Peninsula in modern Saffaqah region, Saudi Arabia in 2014 to find out the reason of these species extinction.

Their findings indicate that the Homo erectus species in the area actually tried as little as possible to make tools and find supplies. Though these ancient humans lived in areas that had easy access to rocks and water.
This is Dr. Ceri Shipton on site at Saffaqah in central Saudi Arabia. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2Mjx5Ik)
"They don't seem to inspire themselves. I don't get proof that they are true explorers, they don't have the same curiosity as we are now," Dr. Ceri Shipton as told to Sky News.

He also added that this was evidence of how the species made stone tools they found lying around their homes. The problem is, the stones are of low quality. Most stone tools are made from stones that are worse than tools in the next civilization. In fact, there are areas of better quality rock even though it requires a trip far enough from their settlements.

"When we saw the rock there were no signs of any activity, there were no artifacts and there were no rock excavations. They knew it was there, but because they had enough resources for them, so why bother -repot? " Shipton continued.
The site at Saffaqah in central Saudi Arabia. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2nE0uy0)
This is in contrast to the makers of stone tools in later periods, including early Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. They climbed the mountain to find good quality rocks and transport them in long distances.

"Sediment samples show the environment around them is changing, but they are doing the same thing with their equipment," said Dr. Shipton. Unlike the more advanced species, Homo erectus tends to use a single "generic" tool for almost all jobs.

However, Homo erectus's ability to make tools is far more advanced than early humans in other parts of the world. They can already make a hand ax. Homo erectus-type ancient humans are strong and skilled. They developed in this region for some time. But, once the river bed dries up and there is sedimentation in the river, Homo erectus actually dies because they lack initiative. "They have never been very far from sources of clean water," said Dr. Shipton.

"We also found that their technology for making stone tools is very conservative. They use the same strategies to make tools in the face of a changing environment. So, they are not only lazy but also very conservative," he said as quoted by Science Daily on August 10, 2018.

Shipton said further that the extinction of Homo erectus was caused by not having the ability to plan for the future. "They only plan for the next few hours, or maybe for the next day. While Homo sapiens and Neanderthals plan further ahead, like a seasonal migration plan," he concluded. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | IFLSCIENCE! | SCIENCE DAILY]
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Wednesday, August 29, 2018

Scientists find the world's oldest color

Scientists have found what they say is the oldest color in the world, namely bright pink. The facts about the history of the pigment were discovered after researchers destroyed 1.1 billion years old rocks in flakes of marine deposits found in the rocky layers of the Sahara Desert, in the Taoudeni basin of Mauritania (western Africa).
Biogeochemistry lab manager Janet Hope from the ANU research school of earth sciences holds a vial of coloured porphyrins (pink coloured liquid), believed to be some of the oldest pigments in the world. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2wjcSHB)
"Of course you might say that everything (rocks) has several colors," said Prof. Jochen Brocks, senior researcher leader from the Australian National University. "What we found was the oldest biological color," he continued as quoted by The Guardian on Wednesday, June 11, 2018.

Then, Prof. Brocks compared it to the discovery of a 100 million-year-old T-Rex bone. "It (the T-Rex bone fossil) also has color, but tends to have a gray pigment base, or brown. But that won't tell you what T-Rex's skin is like," Prof Brocks continued.
The oldest color pigments in the world are found from marine animals fossils of hundreds of millions of years old. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2PtUkx4)
He explained that the newest pigment molecules found by his team did not come from large creatures, but microscopic organisms that lived in the early era of the formation of the Earth.

The oldest color, was first discovered by a doctoral student named Nur Gueneli, who destroyed fossil rocks into powder. Then, she extracts and analyzes the molecules of ancient organisms from the chemicals they contain.

Gueneli said the pigment was half a billion years older than the discovery of the previous fossil pigment. "Bright pink pigments are molecular fossils of chlorophyll produced by ancient photosynthetic organisms, which inhabit ancient oceans," she said in a statement. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | THE GUARDIAN]
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Monday, August 27, 2018

Researchers develop new naturally decompose plastic materials

The use of plastic as packaging material continues to increase along with the increasing number of world population. Environmental experts say packaging materials that can be composted and can be decomposed naturally are now increasingly needed, especially the ingredients used as food packaging.
Carson Meredith, Professor at Georgia Tech's School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, showed a new type of "plastic" that could be decomposed which he was developing with other researchers. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2Lj0vkz)
Now, a thin layer like plastic that can be decomposed and made of shells and wood scraps might be able to meet that need. The "plastic" is a new type, which is not made of oil at all, and is currently being developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology.

Research leader Carson Meredith was looking for alternatives to plastic materials made from by-products of oil refining. "About eight years ago, we began conducting research in what is known as nano technology by using forest products," he told VOA.

"This is a new field of science that seeks the use of wood or other forest products, to take parts called nano crystal materials to be made into cellulose and use them in the manufacture of very lightweight but strong packaging materials." That means, cellulose fibers found in wood used to make paper can also be used to replace plastic as food packaging. 
This is J. Carson Meredith, a professor in Georgia Tech's School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. (Picture from: https://b.gatech.edu/2MMY9PE)
The Meredith leadership team combined wood cellulose with chitin, the basic ingredient of seashells and lobster or crayfish skeletons, and the result was a thin layer that could naturally decompose. At the molecular level, electrically charged chitin and cellulose are mutually attractive. Experts at the Georgia Technology Institute use this natural fact to make thin layers like plastic.

Meredith said the results of his research showed that chitin and cellulose could become stronger if formed in two or three thin layers. This new packaging material is very effective to prevent oxygen from entering, and therefore is very good for wrapping food.
Meredith said that he had not tested the new "plastic" as a food wrapper, but the interesting thing was that it could be a packaging material that could be used as a compost and was fully biodegradable or would be completely broken down after being dumped in the trash. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | GEORGIA TECH RESEARCH HORIZONS]  
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