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Showing posts with label Did u know. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Did u know. Show all posts

Friday, June 12, 2020

The world's first streamliner vehicle design by Paul Jaray

The rapid development of automotive technology in the 1920s could not be separated from the many studies conducted by engineers who then proceed with the manufacture of concept vehicles to present the results of the research.
The 'Ugly Duckling' or (replica) 1923 Auto Union streamline concept while exhibited at the Bodelwyddan Castle in North Wales and was hugely influenced by Paul Jaray's aerodynamic principles(Picture from: https://bit.ly/2MNafGH)
One of them was the work of a Hungarian-born engineer named Paul Jaray who was very significant then influenced the automotive industry the next few decades. He was among the earliest proponents of automotive aerodynamics and streamlining, a look that defined the futuristic look of many cars in the 1920s and 1930s.
1922 Ley T6, the world's frist streamliner vehicle design by Paul Jaray during a test drive. (Picture from: https://bit.ly/2MMIPAP)
As quoted from Autoevolution which states that he was the first started by completely redesigning the now-famous Zeppelins from looking like a tube to the streamline shapes we know today. Paul Jaray was born in Vienna in 1889, and after studying mechanical engineering he moved to the town of Zeppelins and Maybachs, Friedrichshafen.
The blue print of Paul Jaray first working prototype was announced on September 8, 1921 and followed with a patent application that made at the Berlin office. (Picture from: https://bit.ly/2Uy6j0M)
Since 1912, he has been actively involved in aerodynamics in every shape or form, beside the dirigibles. And one of his most famous and revolutionary works which he later brought to car design. His first working prototype was announced on September 8, 1921 and followed with a patent application that made at the Berlin office for those inventions of his.
1923 Ley Stromlinien Wagen racing car using Jaray's aerodynamic priciples. (Picture from: https://bit.ly/2MMIPAP)
In the short, the Jarray' inventions as mentioned above might be described like this, "the lower part of the body has the form of a half streamline body and covers the chassis with the wheels, the engine compartment and the passenger compartment. The lower surface is even and runs parallel to the floor space. On this main part a substantially narrower streamline body is set, which is carried by a framework-like construction, which is developed on the chassis for its part." Which came to be known in the world's automotive as a teardrop-shaped vehicle designs.
The American' Chrysler test car using Jaray's aerodynamic priciples. (Picture from: https://bit.ly/2MMIPAP)
A year later, he collaborated with Alfred Ley from Rud. Ley Maschinenfabrik A.G. which then led them to give birth the world's first aerodynamic car named the Ley T6. By follows the Jaray' streamline principles, which makes the car capable of reaching speeds of more than 100 kph (62 mph) by using a 1.5 liter engine with only 20hp. If the car is built by using the 'regular' bodywork design at that time, so it is estimated that the maximum speed that can be achieved will not exceed 70 or 75 kph (40-45 mph).
After success in the car testings, then many other car manufacturers requested and even stole the Jaray's streamline principles. Nevertheless, Jaray pushed on. Then he set up his own design consulting company, Stromlinen Karosserie Ges. in Zurich and licensing his streamlined designs to manufacturers. Tatra used the concept until 1975. Maybach was another car maker to embrace the style and BMW developed a Jaray-penned concept.
But it was Audi (Auto Union) with which he is most closely associated. The 1923 Auto Union streamliner concept sadly no longer exists; a faithful replica was built and is the one used in the A5 adverts. Jaray’s influence can also be seen on Auto Union's ‘Silver Arrows’ race cars. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | AUTOEVOLUTION | ECOMODDER | AUTOCAR]
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Saturday, February 1, 2020

The orangutan population is increasingly critical

We haven't included the discussion on nature conservation for a long time, especially after knowing about the latest condition of orangutan habitat on the island of Borneo. 

There was something intriguing, so we on this occasion again made an article with the nature conservation-themed, in the hope that it could spark empathy for the orangutan conservation efforts. Thus the existence of orangutans in the wild can continue to be preserved.
A mobile library of Yayorin (Yayasan Orangutan Indonesia/Indonesian' Orangutan Foundation) to support its education efforts, in areas close to orangutan habitat, in Central Kalimantan Indonesian Borneo. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2RRHfzQ)
The year 2019 has been passed, the population of orangutans on the island of Borneo is increasing decreased. If previously the status of its population was critical, now the existence of orangutans in Kalimantan has entered an endangered critical stage.

"In the past, we could say the orangutan conditions on the island of Borneo are still safe. The population is between 35,000 and 55,000. But after the survey increased again (the severity levels), now it is the same as Sumatra, in very critical stage," said Rondang Siregar, an orangutan expert at the University of Indonesia some time ago.

This critically endangered status is determined by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. And the Sumatra orangutans have assumed this status in advance.
A mature male Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii). (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2O7KJgC)
Rondang further said, the reason for the increasingly falling down the population of orangutans still revolves around the classic problem, namely the orangutan lives increasingly threatened because their habitats were taken for human use. For example, in 2017 alone, the deforestation rate is still around 97,000 hectares, especially now that the numbers are getting bigger. 

As a result of deforestation makes the orangutan habitat fragmented. "Because their habitat was chopped up eventually they came out and conflicted with humans," said Rondang. 
Pongo pygmaeus morio or the Black Bornean Orangutan. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2O7KJgC)
On the island of Borneo alone, poaching and trade in wildlife are also still rife. In fact, orangutans are clearly protected by the Indonesian's Law Number 5 of 1990 concerning Conservation of Living Natural Resources and Ecosystems. 

"In the past, the price was Rp.500,000 (approx US $37) when left the forest. When it came to the port, the station, the terminal, it could reach millions rupiah. Surely it is always there," said Rondang. Due to habitat loss and poaching, the orangutan population has declined dramatically by 50 percent over the past 20 years. How tragic, isn't? 

Thus the orangutan preservations need to be done immediately and You can actively participate in this effort by making a donation through Orangutan Foundation. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | ORANGUTAN FOUNDATION | SAINS KOMPAS]
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Thursday, January 23, 2020

You've been lucky, if could be see one of these cars

Maybe you are wondering, why did we make the title of the article like that? This was intentional because it was to show how scarce the following cars were. So it is very rare for people to see it passing on the streets at this time.
The rarest 2007 Blastolene B-702, this unique shaped car inspired by the 1930s French car, designed by Michael Leeds and Randy Grubb. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2tANCvJ)
Like the unique shaped car above named 2007 Blastolene B-702 or known as the best art-deco costumized car ever, it was designed by Michael Leeds and Randy Grubb. The following cars were rare, unloved, forgotten but somehow extremely cool and interesting models that deserve to be dragged into the light and shown to the public once more.

So, here they are – 6 classic sports cars you probably didn’t know ever existed.

1. Melkus RS 1000
The first sports car came from the eastern bloc communist countries which were known to be very closed during the cold war era. So it is very rare to hear the production of sports cars made by these countries. Until one day in the East Germany, there's an automotive engineer named Heinz Melkus designed a very capable and attractive sports coupe car and convinced the Wartburg factory to produce a limited number of these sports cars.
1969 Melkus RS1000. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2GMiCRP)
By using the Wartburg 353 as a basis, Melkus designed and fabricated independent front and rear suspension, roll-bars and close ratio 5-speed gearbox. And then the 992 ccm engine was tuned to produce 68 hp and mounted behind the driver sending its power to rear wheels, instead to front like in its basis car Wartburg 353.

Melkus also designed and manufactured lightweight fiberglass body which featured modern design and low profile. The car was called Melkus RS 1000 and it was introduced for the first time in 1969. To be honest, for 1969s standards this was an extremely advanced sports car, however underpowered with just 68 hp of power.
Left side view of 1969 Melkus RS1000. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2GMiCRP)
The production ended in 1979 after 101 cars were made. The Melkus RS 1000 was extremely expensive for East European standards which also explains why the car made in limited production. Most the sports cars were bought by the auto sports teams and raced in local championships.

And it's rumoured, the car company has been revived by making the Melkus RS2000 and shown it for the first time at the 2009 Frankfurt International Motor Show.

2. Kellison J6
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, fiberglass body construction stopped being high tech process exclusive to established manufacturers and became something you could do in your garage. This influenced numerous small companies to start offering their plastic bodies to be mounted on regular car chassis creating a unique and interesting design.

1965 Kellison J6. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2Srhoga)
There's an auto company named Kellison established in the early 1950s, the company produced several successful kits for installation on popular models, but in early 1960s the company introduced the J6. The J6 could be bought as a kit or a fully built car, making Kellison a boutique car manufacturer.

The J6 was based on Corvette frame but Kellison didn’t just re-body the ‘Vette. They moved the engine further back in the chassis, changed the suspension, installed larger brakes and different interior making J6 better handling and even faster since J6 body was somewhat lighter than stock Corvette.
Rear side view of 1965 Kellison J6. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2TmI7z0)
This conversion was pretty popular and over 500 bodies or cars were built. The J6 was very successful in hands of private racing teams since it offered Corvette power in better handling package.

3. ASA 1000 GT
This little Italian sports car was once considered the next big thing in the car industry when it was introduced in 1962. Then it known as “Ferrarina” (little Ferrari), the ASA 1000 GT was exactly that since it was built on tubular chassis with lightweight body and engine designed by then Ferrari engineer Giotto Bizzarinni.
1964 ASA 1000 GT 'Ferrarina' by Carrozzeria Bertone. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2TejVPv)
It had four-wheel disc brakes, sports suspension, and nicely trimmed interior. Under the hood was the 1.03-liter four cylinder engine capable to spew 93 hp of power. However, despite the big initial interest by the world's automotive customers, the car production stopped in 1967 after only 95 examples were built. Today, this Ferrarina is highly praised by collectors and car historians.

4. Matra Djet
Virtually unknown outside of France, Matra was a very innovative and influential car manufacturer in the country. Originally, the company was dedicated to airplane and military production but then it built cars and developed concepts for another French automotive manufacturers such as Renault, for example.
1965 Matra Djet. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2GLs8F1)
In 1965, Matra took over the Djet project from racer Rene Bonnet and introduced it to the public as the first mid-engined production car in the world. In those days, the concept of mid-engined cars was reduced to racing prototypes and Matra decided to introduce similar cars for the road.
Rear side view of 1965 Matra Djet. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2GLs8F1)
The car custom built chassis with diminutive Renault 8 engine may look slow today, but since the car only weighed 660 kg it was pretty fast in those day. Matra Djet was a very influential car since it showed the world a new engineering concept which was later accepted by all leading world's sports car manufacturers.

5. Cheetah
The global success of Shelby Cobra inspired many American race car builders to build a similar car which could compete on international level. From this perspective, nobody came close to beating the Cobra.
Bill Thomas Cheetah GT. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2ICRR4h)
But Bill Thomas, a famous Chevrolet tuner and race car builder was a serious candidate. Unfortunately, due to various circumstances, the Cheetah was never given a proper chance. As you know, Chevrolet and GM pulled out of racing in 1963 but several independent race shops worked for GM`s back door programs in which the company supported the private racing teams with racing know-how or special racing parts.
Right side view of Bill Thomas Cheetah GT. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2ICRcQl)
Bill Thomas’ shop was one of those outfits and he decided to build a Cobra competitor with Chevrolet power. That is how the Cheetah was born. Built on special lightweight chassis with a small block V8 moved as far back as possible and covered in a light fiberglass body, the Cheetah looked and performed as a race car.

Despite some overheating problems, the Cheetah was a remarkable performer and won some lower rank races and even the 1968 SCCA championship. Unfortunately, lack of support, mechanical problems and even a fire at the shop in California stopped the production after around 20 cars were built.

6. Marcos GT
The car produced from 1964 to 1971 and again from 1981 to 1990. Marcos GT was the most popular and interesting model from the British auto company named Marcos Engineering Ltd. Basically, a kit car built on custom chassis but with choice of engines, Marcos GT was relatively cheap but capable sports car with aggressive styling, low weight, and decent performance.
1967 Marcos GT. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2TieY8a)
The GT could be had with numerous engines, mostly by Ford and lineup started with small 1.5 or 1.6-liter four-cylinders. However, if you want to experience full potential, the buyers needed to opt for 3.0-liter V6 from Ford or Volvo. For a brief period of time, Marcos GT was offered on the American market with Volvo`s straight six but not many cars were sold. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | MOTOR-JUNKIE]
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Saturday, January 18, 2020

The only supercar in the Kei Car segment

From Japanese automotive manufacturer, we're spoiled by a variety of automotive products. But there is something that tickles the eye and looks so unique that it's hard not to look it in Japan, where you can see many cutie cars made by almost all of the famous Japanese car manufacturers, such as Daihatsu, Honda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Suzuki, Toyota.
1992 Autozam AZ-1, the only supercar in the kei car segment made by Mazda and its engine of Suzuki. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2QUNe7S)
Well in Japan, these cutie cars are known as the Kei Car. And as far we know, the kei car itself is one of the best-selling car types in the land of the Rising Sun. Besides has the mini-sized body, turn out the engine used by it has a small capacity as well, an average of 660 cc. That's really small, right?

But of the many cute cars made by those Japanese manufacturers mentioned above, there is a kei car model that looks very different. Outwardly this car does have a fairly cute size, but what makes it unique is the style that it carries. The kei car called the Autozam AZ-1 is clearly seen carrying a typical European sports car style.
1992 Autozam AZ-1 is powered by a turbocharged inline three-cylinder displacing 660 cc mated to a five-speed manual transmission. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/3ae268C)
If you don’t know what the Autozam AZ-1 is, nobody can blame you. This cutie car designed and manufactured by Mazda under its Autozam brand while Suzuki provided the engine. This unique styled kei car built and sold in limited numbers from 1992 to 1995. During that time, they made less than 5,000 of them.

It is a tiny sports car powered with a turbocharged three-cylinder engine with 660 cc and able to burst power of 64 hp. Despite its cutie size with 1,500 pounds of weight, the Autozam AZ-1 was a proper sports car. In fact, some parties consider it the only supercar in the Kei Car segment. As you can see, this tiny sports car built on the perfect chassis, complement with a pair of gullwing styled doors and also has decent performance numbers to make it be the favorite car in Japan.
The bizarre styling but lively driving dynamics provided a unique driving experience. And this is one of the reasons you should consider to have this little rolling gem. Although its manufacturer never sold it outside of Japan, you can now import it to America or other places on Earth since it is older than 25 years. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | WIKIPEDIA | MOTOR JUNKIES]
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Friday, January 17, 2020

Did You know what is the Point Nemo?

The area on Earth that is spread out by a vast cluster of islands and oceans, but apparently still holds many certain areas to be still a mystery. One of them is a place that is named "Point Nemo" aka "no one" if translated into Latin. So-called because there's no one who has ever openly touched or arrived at the place because it is located far from the mainland. The name of Nemo is derived from the fictional submarine captain name of Jules Verne's novel entitled "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea."
Point Nemo, a mysterious and remote place on Earth that has not been touched by humans. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2G2mOLb)
As quoted from the Bombastis, when viewed from the map, the place was seen flanked by three continents namely Australia, America (southern part), and Antarctica, so that it seemed very remote and rarely noticed. No wonder the existence of Point Nemo is then used as a convenient "graveyard" for many retired spacecraft or defunct satellites after orbiting in outer space. So, what's the location like?

Point Nemo has become a deserted area that is rarely considered by most humans in the world. As quoted from Allthatsinteresting, the area located at 48°52.6′ South and 123°23.6′ West, even said to be the middle of nowhere because of the characteristic location that is surrounded by more than 1,000 nautical miles in each direction, can arguably the starting point as a place in the ocean far from the mainland. Then, if seen from the facts, there're no one lives close together in the area.
Because it was devoid of human life, then it was made into an unofficial "graveyard" of many defunct satellites and other retired spacecraft. At least 260 spacecraft mostly Russian's have been drowned in peace there. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2G2mOLb)
Because it was devoid of human life, Point Nemo was made into an unofficial "graveyard" of many defunct satellites and other retired spacecraft. For example, Russia's space laboratory, Mir with a weight more of 120 tons was once directed to land in this place in 2001. Then followed by China which also chose the north direction of Point Nemo is the location of the fall of its Tiangong-1 in 2018. In fact, the International Space Station (ISS), which weighs over 420 tons, is also planned to be buried at Nemo Point if it retires in the next 2024.

In the future, Point Nemo will probably no longer be a "graveyard" for retired spacecraft or satellites due to the future space rides will be designed completely burn in the atmosphere. So that Point Nemo will remain as it is, one of the world's most mysterious places. Strange but true is the fitted sentence pinned to give a glance picture of the existence of those mysterious Point Nemo.
Vehicles break up into thousands of pieces before hitting the water. Pictured is the European Space Agency craft Jules Verne during re-entry before landing in Point Nemo in 2008. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2sqaSzz)
The Point Nemo discovered in 1992 by a survey engineer named Hrvoje Lukatela by using a geographic's computer software, which calculates the greatest distance coordinates of three land coordinates that are the same distance. It is very likely that no human has ever crossed those coordinates at all. Even, the inventor had never visited the location of Point Nemo. This remote ocean location is 2,688 kilometers from the nearest mainland - Ducie Island, part of the Pitcairn Islands, to the north; Motu Nui, one of the Easter Islands, to the northeast; and Maher Island, part of Antarctica, to the south.
The Point Nemo discovered in 1992 by a survey engineer named Hrvoje Lukatela by using a geographic's computer software. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2sqaSzz)
Then, one of the mysterious unsolved events to date that has ever taken place in the area around Point Nemo is the mysterious sound of bubbles. At that time in 1997, the world's scientists were surprised when they detected one of the loudest underwater sounds ever recorded near the poles.

The sound later called "The Bloop" was caught by an underwater microphone that was more than 3,000 miles apart. Until now, there has been no further explanation about the sound. Given, the location of Point Nemo which is also remote and rarely visited by humans. As it turns out, some said the Bloop was actually the sound of ice breaking off of Antarctica and not the call of Cthulhu, a kind of sea monster.
Although there is a lot of speculation, there hasn't been any empirical research and visitation yet to gather information about the area. Until now, Point Nemo has only been known as a deserted water area and has not been touched by any human hands. No doubt, Point Nemo has become a mysterious remote place waiting to be revealed. Perhaps, it could be revealed by You someday. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | THE SUN | ALLTHATSINTERESTING]
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Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Know About the Parachute

The word of "parachute" as we know it today comes from the French, "para" (protecting) and "chute" (fall) so that the parachute means "protection of the fall." How the beginning of a parachute?

Triangle-shaped parachute designed
by Leonardo Da Vinci. (Picture from: 
http://timnovate.wordpress.com/)
In the 15th century, Leonardo Da Vinci ever make triangle-shaped parachute. Because of that design, Leonardo can be considered as one of the pioneers in the concept design of the parachute.

A century after Leonardo Da Vinci designed a parachute concept, an Italian, Fausto Veranzio design parachute that is different from the concept that was made by Leonardo. He made a rectangular parachute.

The next development of parachute done by André-Jacques Garnerin. He successfully completed its design in 1797.

A round parachute with a diameter of 23 feet. Garnerin parachute still equipped with a frame so that its shape is like an umbrella.
Parachute designed by Fausto Veranzio and André-Jacques Garnerin.
On October 22, 1797 Garnerin test the parachute to jump from a balloon floating at an altitude of 975 meters above the city of Paris. Although the parachute failed to control the violent crushing of aerodynamic air that makes Garnerin jump was unmanageable, but he managed to land safely.

Thomas Scott Baldwin known as "The 
Father of the Modern Parachute."
(Picture from: http://www.hill.af.mil/)
The success was made ​​Garnerin became the first man to successfully use a parachute to make the jump from a flying object hovering in the sky.

The first person who managed to make a parachute without a framework known as Limp Parachute was Thomas Scott Baldwin of the U.S. in 1897. In 1919, Leslie Irvin managed to make a parachute that can be controlled.

Now, parachuting is one of the sport as well as recreational facilities. Parachuting continue to spread around the world and become a very challenging hobby.

Now parachute was developed with the specifications and functions are increasingly sophisticated. *** [SEPTI | PIKIRAN RAKYAT 02082012]
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Friday, December 27, 2019

Why Whale Poop is Very Expensive?

The color is yellowish gray and stinks. But the value of whale excrement could reach tens of thousands of dollars per kilogram. Whale feces was discovered by Ken Wilman while strolling with his dog, Madge on a secluded beach in Morecambe, England. Initially, Wilman thought it as a rock. "When I picked it up, I immediately put it back because it smells disgusting," Wilman said, as quoted by the BBC.
Ken Wilman, the luckiest man that has found 3 kg of ambergris on a secluded beach in Morecambe, England. (Picture from: http://www.escapistmagazine.com/)
At home, Wilman finds out about it from Google's site. The clumps that similar to the rock is probably the ambergris, which is derived from the digestive tract of sperm whales, and an element that is very expensive in luxury fragrances, such as Chanel No. 5. Realizing that stinky thing is a worthy thing, Wilman right back to the beach and pick it up. One ambergris agent from France had offered the stone was worth U.S. $ 68 thousand, (or approximately Rp. 660 million). However, it is likely a much higher value.

"These findings are very valuable," said Chris Hill, curator at the Aquarium of the Lakes in Cumbria, England. "There are few places in Europe that are interested in buying it. They will keep for years like wine and test it as a perfume. What value of the Ambergris?  It is determined by its freshness, but the possibility of U.S. $ 180 thousand (or approximately Rp. 1.7 billion)."

No one knows for sure how sperm whales produce that substance is, or how the animals produce the clumps. Many experts agree that whales produce ambergris in the gut as a type of fat to coat hard and pungent foods are difficult to digest, such as the giant squid beak. The part squid was hard indeed found in ambergris.
Sperm whale. (Picture from: http://www.fish-journal.com/)
But while some reports call ambergris "whale vomit," others insist it's not puke. "It's poop," said Christopher Kemp, a molecular biologist from the University of Chicago. Kemp, the author of "Floating Gold: the Natural (and Unnatural) History of Ambergris" (University Of Chicago Press, 2012), notes that the stuff commands a high price because "only one percent of the 350,000 sperm whales can actually make it," he told ABC News. "Because it's so rare, it's very valuable." *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE | TJANDRA DEWI | KORAN TEMPO 4133]
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Saturday, December 7, 2019

Get to know the iconic Harley Davidson machines

When there is a convoy of big motorbikes on the highway, and it will be seen that the most prominent is the Harley-Davidson motorcycle which has a roaring sound coming out of its V-Twin engine that will be easily recognized and very distinctive even though it's far away from our hearing. So it is not excessive if many assume that the fierce look of Harley-Davidson motorcycle is partly derived from its machine.
An illustration of the classic Harley-Davidson motorcycle. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2rmpbEI)
Indeed, Harkey-Davidson motorbikes are very easy to recognize through its typical V-Twin 45-degree engine, but did you know that the V-Twin engine has several changes or revolutions according to the shape of the chassis and models. But, not all machines will be discussed here, only a few are said to be iconic and famous machines of their time. Let's check it out! 

1. 1909 Atmospheric V-Twin 
(Picture from: http://bit.ly/33WSDOV)
The first engine from Harley-Davidson was a V-twin designed by HD's Chief Engineer, Bill Harley in 1908, right after he was graduating from the University of Wisconsin in 1908. This type of engine was produced in 1909, this was the beginning of Harley-Davidson coming into the world.

This engine with a capacity of 811 cc and capable of producing power of 7 horsepower is made for 27 units of motorcycles. And the motorcycle that was present at that time with a very simple construction that uses a separate gearbox and kick-starter. This engine is also known as the forerunner of the V-twin 45-degree engine lineage of Harley-Davidson.

2. 1911-1929 F-Head 
(Picture from: http://bit.ly/33WSDOV)
Followed by the birth of the F-Head type engine born from 1911 to 1929. The F-Head engine comes with a capacity of 1,000 cc and 1,213 cc.

This machine has also been refined and made of better iron castings materials.

This F-Head engine features a waterproof ignition system and is designed for use on public roads, the police and also for general sale.

3. 1929-1936 Flathead 
(Picture from: http://bit.ly/33WSDOV)
This Flathead engine type also has a unique feature, that is made without a valve above its cylinder head.

The valve is made sideways so that it can be easier when making repairs.

This type of engine can be seen in the Harley-Davidson motorcycles type WL and WLA in the 1930s.

4. 1936-1947 Knucklehead
(Picture from: http://bit.ly/33WSDOV)
After that came the Harley-Davidson engine is known as Knucklehead which was made from 1936 to 1947. The engine with a capacity of 990 cc and 1,200 cc called Knucklehead due to its cylinder head shape similar to the brassed knuckle that is usually worn on the hand to punch.

There are three types of Harley-Davidson motorcycles that use Knucklehead engines namely E, ES, and EL models.

5. 1948-1965 Panhead
(Picture from: http://bit.ly/33WSDOV)
Subsequently followed by the Panhead generation in 1948-1965 who began developing the "cranks" model. This type of engine also comes in two engine capacities, 990 cc, and 1,200 cc, but the power generated is bigger than the Knucklehead engine type.

The Panhead type engine is an advanced development of the Knucklehead engine type, and it uses aluminum cylinder heads, hydraulic valve, increased oil circulation and crankpin roller bearings for engine durability.

6. 1966-1984 Shovelhead 
(Picture from: http://bit.ly/33WSDOV)
Then there is the Shovelhead type engine which was made between
1966 and 1984 and has a capacity of around 1,200 cc. This type of machine can be said to be the successor or a modern version of Panhead with several changes.

Starting from the use of a larger valve, ported better, then there is a piston that is made stronger. The name Shovelhead because the engine, when viewed from an upside-down position, looks like a coal shovel.

7. 1984-1999 Evolution 
(Picture from: http://bit.ly/33WSDOV)
The next engine is Evolution, which was present in 1984-1999, which was the first largest engine with a cylinder capacity of 1,340 cc, which was made by Harley-Davidson. This engine is embedded in the Sportster models starting from 1986 but uses 883 cc and 1,200 cc.

Noted, this engine is the first time Harley-Davidson uses Computer-Aided Design in the manufacture of motorcycles that are more efficient and increasing the power and torque.

8. 1999-2017 Twin Cam 
(Picture from: http://bit.ly/33WSDOV)
Next is the Twin Cam type, which was born between 1999 and 2017, there are two Twin Cam models. First, the engine with a capacity of 1,450 cc and still using a carburetor and refined by Twin Cam 1,584 cc injection technology starting in 2007.

From the beginning, Harley-Davidson never made the engine cooling system with a radiator model. But in 2001, they made a new engine with a radiator cooling system, so the engine was called as Revolution engine with a capacity of 1,340 cc, and this type of engine used by the V-Rod, and continued by the younger generation of Street 500 and Street 750.

9. 2017 Milwaukee-Eight 107 
(Picture from: http://bit.ly/33WSDOV)
The most recent generation of engines used by Harley-Davidson motorbikes is Milwaukee Eight 107 which was produced in 2017. This engine is a refinement of the 1999 Twin Cam-type engine. And the amount of power that can be spewed from this engine can reach 90 horsepower. 

The Milwaukee name is derived from the location of the engine manufacturing plant and the term Eight, it means that in each cylinder there are 4 valves, while the engine has two cylinders making a total of 8 valves. And the 107 symbolizes the engine capacity that reaches 1.753 cc. This type of engine is mounted on the Road King, Street Glide Special, Road Glide Special and Road Glide Ultra models.

Well, for those of you who are curious and want to hear the sounds of the iconic machines from Harley-Davidson that have been briefly discussed above, please check the video below!
Kept spur your adrenaline on the power of the two-wheeled monster and stay alive with true safety riding. May God will forgive Your sins and so does the cops..... *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | ]
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