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Showing posts with label Biology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Biology. Show all posts

Saturday, September 16, 2023

Exploring the Fascinating Journey of Human Evolution

Mind Blowing - Disclaimer: This article is not intended as a reference and is unrelated to any race issues. The content presented is a reconstruction by experts, compiled and summarized from various sources, and based on scientific research findings.
Scientists have discovered a 7.2 million-year-old skull belonging to one of our oldest ancestors and they hope it'll give us a much better understanding of human evolution. (Picture from: ABC.net.au)
The saga of human evolution remains a compelling subject, provoking both interest and debate. Nonetheless, it fuels scientists' unwavering determination to unravel its enigmatic path.
Archaeological excavations at Ga-Mohana Hill North Rockshelter, where crystals and other early evidence for complex behaviors among early Homo sapiens was discovered. (Picture from: CNN)
Human evolution represents the extended transformational journey through which we trace our roots from apelike ancestors. Scientific findings firmly establish that the physical and behavioral characteristics common to all humans evolved from these apelike forebears over a span of roughly six million years.

Wednesday, May 11, 2022

ELVIS gives the new hopes of the blinds able to see

The Blind's HOPES Maybe many of us have ever watched many science-fiction movies such 'Star Wars: The Old Republic' that feature individuals who use technologically advanced implants in the head that are connected to the sense of sight so that they can provide above average vision capability to the user. Thank God maybe not far from now this kind of technology soon become a reality, thanks to the brain implant technology researches carried out by scientists from around the world nearly have the positive results.
The man featured in the 'Star Wars: The Old Republic' movie whose use technologically advanced implants in the head that are connected to the sense of sight so that they can provide above average vision capability to the user. (Picture from: Starwars.Fandom)
One of such as researches carried out by Russian scientists at the ‘Sensor-Tekh’ laboratory and the Foundation For the Support of the Deaf and Blind - ‘So-edinenie’ to develop the first neural brain implant technology that can provide vision for those who have lost their sense of sight or those who are born blind called ELVIS. Indeed, the name accompanies this advanced technology heard so unique, and immediately remind us of the King of Rock'n Roll, Elvis Presley. Giving such name to this device has nothing to do with the famous American artist, but is an acronym for ELectronic VISion.
The Russian scientists at the 'Sensor-Tekh' laboratory and the Foundation For The Support of the Deaf and Blind-'So-edinenie' developed a neural brain implant called ELVIS that could provide vision to people who have lost sight. (Picture from: RussiaBeyond)
While if we've seen from its shape, this tool looks like one of the head devices in the 'Cyberpunk 2077' video game that can provide additional capabilities for its users. As quoted of Russia Beyond, this advanced device has been presented at the Skolkovo Innovation Center, Moscow around June 2021 ago.
The ELVIS technology could be worked after the doctor managed to implant the device into the cerebral cortex or the part of the brain functioned as a sensory information center and decision-making region for motoric output. (Picture from: RussiaBeyond)
Not known yet the results. If it's according to plan, then the technology will be implemented on blind people around the world to get vision starting in 2027. It could be one proof that such a kind of the science fiction devices also able to realize into the real world. As quoted of the Russia Beyond, the ELVIS technology could be worked after the doctor managed to implant the device into the cerebral cortex or the part of the brain functioned as a sensory information center and decision-making region for motoric output.
The ELVIS implant device works by using electrodes as a connector to the brain parts that function to control the vision. (Picture from: RussiaBeyond)
According to researchers of the Sensor-Tech Laboratory related how the ELVIS implant device works by using electrodes as a connector to the brain parts that function to control the vision. Later, the patients for several months will be given a headband equipped with a camera that can send images directly to the brain not through the eyes. Furthermore, this Russian-made brain implant is said would be very suitable for people aged between 24 to 65 years because it requires a fully formed adult brain (so the children are not allowed to use it), and also should be replaced in every 10 years with the new ones.
The ELVIS implant device is slated to enter production in 2027 with the initial cost for operation processes and installation of the camera are estimated RUS Ruble 10 million, or about US $138,000. (Picture from: RussiaBeyond)
And for now, the ELVIS itself is in the animal testing phase and will continue on monkeys. As for humans themselves, the testing will be carried out in 2023 by involving several prevoliously prepared volunteers. This advanced technology is slated to enter production in 2027 with the initial cost for operation processes and installation of the camera are estimated RUS Ruble 10 million, or about US $138,000. Later, after this device is included in the community support and covered by insurance program, might be the cost can reduced by half.
According to the head of the ELVIS project Denis Kuleshov, Director of the Sensor-Tech Laboratory, this Russian-developed brain implant was not the only one in the world, there are about 10 similar studies currently being worked by scientists all over the world. (Picture from: RussiaBeyond)
According to the head of the ELVIS project Denis Kuleshov, Director of the Sensor-Tech Laboratory, this Russian-developed brain implant was not the only one in the world, there are about 10 similar studies currently being worked by scientists all over the world, and one of them with the biggest progress is such currently being worked by a team of researchers from Spain (CORTIVIS), the Netherlands (NESTOR), and Australia (Monash University).
Kuleshov himself explained that the difference between ELVIS and similar other devices has the low offered bionic vision resolution. While the Russian-made ELVIS uses a combination of bionics and artificial intelligence so that the blind can use electronic vision optimally. In addition, the other project uses technology that only projects flashes of light onto the cerebral cortex, while the ELVIS has Artificial Intelegence (AI) working to assist the system in identifying the object, or what it resembles.

"This will also aid our patients at the rehabilitation stage, allowing us to improve the learning process associated with seeing again after the surgery," he adds as qouted of the Russia Beyond. Hopefully this sophisticated devices can be realized soon and able to help millions of blind people get their sight back. What do you think? Feel free to share Your thought about this through the article's comment below.👌*** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | ELVIS | SO-EDINENIE | RUSSIA BEYOND ]
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Saturday, February 1, 2020

The orangutan population is increasingly critical

We haven't included the discussion on nature conservation for a long time, especially after knowing about the latest condition of orangutan habitat on the island of Borneo. 

There was something intriguing, so we on this occasion again made an article with the nature conservation-themed, in the hope that it could spark empathy for the orangutan conservation efforts. Thus the existence of orangutans in the wild can continue to be preserved.
A mobile library of Yayorin (Yayasan Orangutan Indonesia/Indonesian' Orangutan Foundation) to support its education efforts, in areas close to orangutan habitat, in Central Kalimantan Indonesian Borneo. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2RRHfzQ)
The year 2019 has been passed, the population of orangutans on the island of Borneo is increasing decreased. If previously the status of its population was critical, now the existence of orangutans in Kalimantan has entered an endangered critical stage.

"In the past, we could say the orangutan conditions on the island of Borneo are still safe. The population is between 35,000 and 55,000. But after the survey increased again (the severity levels), now it is the same as Sumatra, in very critical stage," said Rondang Siregar, an orangutan expert at the University of Indonesia some time ago.

This critically endangered status is determined by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. And the Sumatra orangutans have assumed this status in advance.
A mature male Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii). (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2O7KJgC)
Rondang further said, the reason for the increasingly falling down the population of orangutans still revolves around the classic problem, namely the orangutan lives increasingly threatened because their habitats were taken for human use. For example, in 2017 alone, the deforestation rate is still around 97,000 hectares, especially now that the numbers are getting bigger. 

As a result of deforestation makes the orangutan habitat fragmented. "Because their habitat was chopped up eventually they came out and conflicted with humans," said Rondang. 
Pongo pygmaeus morio or the Black Bornean Orangutan. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2O7KJgC)
On the island of Borneo alone, poaching and trade in wildlife are also still rife. In fact, orangutans are clearly protected by the Indonesian's Law Number 5 of 1990 concerning Conservation of Living Natural Resources and Ecosystems. 

"In the past, the price was Rp.500,000 (approx US $37) when left the forest. When it came to the port, the station, the terminal, it could reach millions rupiah. Surely it is always there," said Rondang. Due to habitat loss and poaching, the orangutan population has declined dramatically by 50 percent over the past 20 years. How tragic, isn't? 

Thus the orangutan preservations need to be done immediately and You can actively participate in this effort by making a donation through Orangutan Foundation. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | ORANGUTAN FOUNDATION | SAINS KOMPAS]
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Wednesday, August 29, 2018

Scientists find the world's oldest color

Scientists have found what they say is the oldest color in the world, namely bright pink. The facts about the history of the pigment were discovered after researchers destroyed 1.1 billion years old rocks in flakes of marine deposits found in the rocky layers of the Sahara Desert, in the Taoudeni basin of Mauritania (western Africa).
Biogeochemistry lab manager Janet Hope from the ANU research school of earth sciences holds a vial of coloured porphyrins (pink coloured liquid), believed to be some of the oldest pigments in the world. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2wjcSHB)
"Of course you might say that everything (rocks) has several colors," said Prof. Jochen Brocks, senior researcher leader from the Australian National University. "What we found was the oldest biological color," he continued as quoted by The Guardian on Wednesday, June 11, 2018.

Then, Prof. Brocks compared it to the discovery of a 100 million-year-old T-Rex bone. "It (the T-Rex bone fossil) also has color, but tends to have a gray pigment base, or brown. But that won't tell you what T-Rex's skin is like," Prof Brocks continued.
The oldest color pigments in the world are found from marine animals fossils of hundreds of millions of years old. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2PtUkx4)
He explained that the newest pigment molecules found by his team did not come from large creatures, but microscopic organisms that lived in the early era of the formation of the Earth.

The oldest color, was first discovered by a doctoral student named Nur Gueneli, who destroyed fossil rocks into powder. Then, she extracts and analyzes the molecules of ancient organisms from the chemicals they contain.

Gueneli said the pigment was half a billion years older than the discovery of the previous fossil pigment. "Bright pink pigments are molecular fossils of chlorophyll produced by ancient photosynthetic organisms, which inhabit ancient oceans," she said in a statement. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | THE GUARDIAN]
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Thursday, December 22, 2016

The scientists recorded the sightings of a mysterious Ghost shark

In a rare sighting, scientists recorded the image of a scary shark with a bluish color and gray that was swimming in the waters of the northern hemisphere. "The ghost sharks" recorded was actually not a shark, but chimaera, or relatives who split from the evolutionary cousin sharks approximately 300 million years ago.

These water crature is only known to live near New Zealand and Australia. However, the marine biologists say that this video footage could show a greater range of locations than they previously realized.
Is this Hydrolagus Trolli or the pointy-nosed blue chimaera? (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gtEsm)
"Usually, people probably would not have seen them around this area, so it is a little bit lucky this discovery," said Program Director for Pacific Shark Research Center at Moss Landing Marine Laboratories Dave Ebert, as quoted from National Geographic on Monday, December 19, 2016.

Researchers did not set out to find Hydrolagus Trolli or pointy-nosed blue chimaera when they sent a remotely operated underwater vehicle to explore the waters off of California and Hawaii in 2009. Instead, the scientists involved in this project is a geologist but they studied motherlode marine biology also.

Chimaera which is also known as baronang, ratfish, ghost sharks or chimaeras were prefer cold water from the deep sea. Physically, chimaeras have a bit of their sea dinosaur-like ancestors with scary stripes along the head and body.
Footage of the divers was finally released this week by Monteray Bay Aquarium Research Institute. If the creatures featured in the video confirmed was true the pointy-nosed blue chimaera, it would be the first time for scientists to see one of them is in the northern hemisphere. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC]
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Friday, December 16, 2016

Monkeys are actually able to speak, but...

It is a fairly surprising news; monkeys may have more sophisticated vocal ability than we had expected all along. Allegedly, their vocal tract anatomy is theoretically capable of producing five basic vowel sounds which become the basis for human language. The voices that can be used to form sentences that can be understood.
Monkey's vocal tract anatomy is theoretically able to produce five basic vowel sounds which become the basis for human language. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gjMnH)
These findings add to the set of the available evidence, namely that some monkeys and apes can mimic or produce roughly votes required to communicate like they are speaking. As quoted from NewScientist on Wednesday, December 14, 2016, Asif Ghazanfar of Princeton University said, "No one can say now that there is a vocal anatomy problem in the talks of monkeys."

"They have a vocal anatomy, that are ready to speak, but their brain was the one who was not ready for it. We need to find out why the human brain (not the monkey brain) which is then able to produce the languages."

Several previous experiments to find out if the monkey has a vocal device needed to speak depends on the plaster mold of the vocal tract type of macaque monkeys.
Monkey's vocal tract anatomy is theoretically able to produce five basic vowel sounds which become the basis for human language. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gjMnH)
Now, Ghazanfar and his colleagues used movies and still images of X-rays of the vocal tract of male long-tailed macaque named Emiliano. With the help of barium-based contrast agents, the scientists created the whole visual profile of Emiliano vocal tract when the monkey was issued various types of sounds and calls.

Through the imaging of the channel when the monkeys were eating and swallowing food, scientists can measure the limits of Emiliano's vocal tract stretching. Of the 99 basic configuration of the channel as their observations, the researchers calculated the sound and frequency of which could theoretically can be produced by the monkeys, then compare it with the sounds produced by the humans vocal tract.

By doing this, they managed to reconstruct the sound if Emiliano say a sentence, such as "Will you marry me?" Here comes a greeting from Emiliano the monkey appropriate computer simulations based on its vocal tract scan:
They also showed that Emiliano has anatomical ability to form five basic sounds that underlie human language. When they project the sound simulation to 10 human volunteers in a row, the volunteers correctly identify the sound simulation, within up to 90-98 percent. Thus, there is a suspicion that if the monkeys were able to make a sound that humans can be recognize it. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | NEW SCIENTIST]
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Thursday, December 15, 2016

Mutations make Killifish becoming a super fish

The mutations process make killifish can live in waters full of poison. Scientists reveal that the fish was 8,000 times more resistant to toxins than ordinary fish. This fascinating fact was revealed in a publication in the journal Science on Friday, December 9, 2016.

To reveal the fact, Andrew Whitehead of the University of California, Davis, has collected more than 4,000 Atlantic Killifish that live on the east coast of the United States. These waters are known to contain dioxins, polychloronated biphenyls (PCB), and heavy metals 8,000 times higher than the other waters in general.
Scientists discover mutated Killifish that have become 8,000 times more resistant to toxic waste. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1ghFg1)
Then, Whitehead perform genetic analysis. And, strangeness is revealed. Killifish genes mutate so that a molecular pathway that serves to damage cells deliver signals that exposure to toxins deactivated.

Not only resistant to the toxin, the animals commonly used as ornamental fish also help cleanse toxins from the environment by accumulating in its body. Whitehead said furthermore, that the presence of animals are able to survive in the toxic environment is not always good news.

"Unfortunately, most of the species we preserve may not be able to adapt to the rapid changes because they do not have a genetic variation that allows it to evolve quickly," said Whitehead.

As quoted from Science Alert on Friday, December 8, 2016, Whitehead said that the great genetic variation that allows a species can survive well in line with the process of mutation. Killifish might survive, but not necessarily with the predators. Thus, the survival of killifish just not good news for the environment.. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | SCIENCE ALERT]
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Monday, December 5, 2016

Watch out, these ant species can rule the world

Do not underestimate its size. Who would have thought if the ant species that live in the forests of Ethiopia is capable of being a threat to humans. Lepisiota Canescens ant species can be buit super colonies that will spread rapidly in many regions, disrupting the ecosystem and even become a threat to humans.
Lepisiota ants killing a termite. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gPXYN)
This finding was revealed from a study by a group of American and Ethiopian researchers which have been published in the journal Insectes sociaux. The team included scientists from several institutions in Ethiopia and the United States, including North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, University of Tulsa, Bahir Dar University, California Academy of Sciences, and the Smithsonian Institution.

Researchers observed that the ant genus Lepisiota has mastered the Kruger National Park in South Africa. These ant species colonies were spread in a large area. It is a sign that these species become invasive. They also say that the ant species is the largest super colony ever observed in their natural habitat. They noted this super colony stretching up to 38 km.

"The species that we found in Ethiopia has the potential to become an invasive species," said D. Magdalena Sorger, a researcher from the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences was quoted as saying on CNBC on Friday, November 25, 2016.

"Invasive species spread by humans, along with tourism, and trade in Ethiopia are increasing. And only with one queen, the colonies can be formed," he added.
This is a Lepisiota dispatching Pheidole ant. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gPXs6)
Typically, the ants form the colonies consisting of one nest and ruled by a queen. But there are 20 different species of ants. They form what is called super colonies consisting of many hives and queens. Super colonies can contain billions of ants who had gathered and were able to remove other ant colonies.

For example, the Argentine ants, these ants have a super colony that covers a large part of California and is now expanding to Mexico. Even, the Argentine ants drive out the native ant populations.

These ants attack also cause declines in predators that prey on native ants. And the Argentine ants have also become a 'part' of the Californian society. People reported if they are rampant in the house, out of the pipe, and even in the bags.

Another case that occurred was in Australia, where a port was forced to close when the super ant colonies are found in the cargo hold. Researchers hope that this research will be to understand how the life of ants whose living in their natural habitat. Including preventing before species become invasive. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | SCIENCE DAILY | CNBC]
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Friday, December 2, 2016

Is it true that NASA conceals the signs of life on Mars?

Scientists have been reviewing the images taken by Spirit rover nearly a decade ago. They also concluded that the United States Space Agency (NASA) may previously ignored evidence of the earliest forms of life on other planets.

As reported Express on Sunday, November 27, 2016, a new evidence published in Nature Communications showed outcrop rocks and regoliths formed of opaline silica photographed by Spirit Rover in Gusev Crater in 2007 could potentially have biosignatures, the nature trails current or past.
Spot the difference: Silica deposits on Mars, inset, compared to on Earth. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gGAh9)
Two experts from Arizona State University (ASU), Steve Ruff and Jack Farmer looked at data from the visits of Spirit Rover to Home Plate, a plateau of layered rock in the crater region of Columbia Hills. It is an ancient region of volcanic ash eroded, believed to still contain active hot water, which has formed silica outcrops, including finger-like formations which were photographed.

In addition, they also occur in less obvious forms, including organic molecules remaining trapped in rocks and compacted mat of microbes known as stromatolites, which is an early form of life on Earth, and are found in Western Australia, and El Tatio in Chile.

Stromatolites are formed when microbial colonies gathered in a humid environment, before trapping sediment in a sticky surface. Sediment reacts with the calcium carbonate in the water, creating a buildup of lime.
Proof of life? The silica deposits on Mars, left, are remarkably similar to on Earth, right. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gGAh9)
Stromatolites in El Tatio, which has conditions similar to Mars also formed by hot springs, said to resemble images taken in the Spirit Rover in the Mars crater. Deposits of silica in the structure in EI Tatio discovered by a team almost identical to that found in Gusev Crater.

"Our results indicate that the condition is more like Mars than El Tatio produce unique deposit, including biomediated silica structure, with characteristics that are favorable compared with the silica outcrops of Home Plate. This similarity raises the possibility that Mars silica structure is formed in a way that is comparable," as the team wrote in the report.

On a separate report last month by a different team of scientists concluded evidence of life on Mars may have been discovered in 1976, but scientists suggest it then do not believe it. A review study called Viking Labeled Release, see the two probes land on the Red Planet, brings interesting claims that the soil collected from Mars indicate microbial life.

The spacecrafts landed 4,000 miles of each other on Mars in the 1970s, but both produce the same surprising results after the Martian soil analysis. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | EXPRESS]
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Saturday, November 5, 2016

Scientists found a new unique millipede

Millipedes, so people often mention the name of smallish reptiles, jointed, and has a row of legs a lot. The arthopoda type animal is one that is often found in parts of Indonesia, India, South Africa and several other countries.

But recently, scientists stunned by the discovery of a unique new species of millipedes in a cave in California. As quoted by LiveScience on Wednesday, October 26, 2016, the male-sex arthopoda has a number of legs and genitals of different animals like.
A new species of millipede (Illacme tobini) with about 414 legs and four 'penises' was discovered in a cave in Sequoia National Park in California. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1fMICM)
If the millipedes in general have about 700 feet, these findings have only 414 and 4 of which also can be converted into the penis. The animal found in the marble caves known as Lange Cave, located in Sequoia National Park, California also has a unique metabolic system. Of the pore of its body, the animal named 'Illacme tobini' can release 200 toxic substances. The hazardous liquids that supposedly serves as a 'weapon' to protect themselves from predators.

The name of Illacme Tobini itself taken from the name of a scientist who discovered this new species, Ben Tobini, a cave expert in the Grand Canyon National Park. The Illacme tobini research starts from 2002 to 2009. During the search formed by Tobini, a cave biologist, Jean Krejca (now working in Zara Evironmental Texas) found the figure of a small milipede measuring only 20 millimeters long.

Krejca then send it to be analyzed to milipeda expert Paul Marek of Virgina Tech, and William Sher from Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia. The scientists then 'excited' to realize they're researching a new species of the Illacme type (so far only one type that was found, ie Illacme plenipes).

The animal was found in an area that is as far as 240 kilometers from Lang Cave. The millipede has 750 feet, and is the milipede with feet at most on the Earth. "I never expected to 'hold' the second type of animal with the most number of feet on the planet, which was found in a cave within 240 kilometers of the previous finding," Marek said in a statement.

After the discovery, the researchers continue their search in hopes of finding another sample of Illacme tobini. They are probing around Lange Cave and 63 other locations in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. But did not find others. The millipede in the hands of scientists is believed to be the only one Illacme tobini and stud of the existing new species.

According to the research, this 'blind' millipede is prey on fungi as the main food source. They also mention that the ninth and tenth feet of the arthopoda can be transformed into a millipede typical penises known as gonopods. The 'penis' has a tapered tip shaped like a shovel and a projection that serves deliver sperm from the male to the female one.

Illacme tobini discovered 90 years after Illacme plenipes discovered in 1928. Both of these animal species belong to Siphonorhinidae (a group only consist of 12 species). *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE]
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Thursday, November 3, 2016

The world's most tough birds

The common swift (Apus apus) as arguably the most tough birds in the air. The species was able to fly 10 months without once landed. In the research results from Andres Hedenstrom, a sweden researcher of the Lund University, and published in the Current Biology journal on Thursday, October 27, 2016 is evidence of the bird toughness.
Common swift (Apus apus) can fly for 10 months straight without landing. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1fJmyW)
Previously, a British researcher named Ron Lockey, in the 1970s have suspected that the common swift has an incredible flying ability. However, Hedenstrom-was the first to prove it. Hedenstrom and his colleagues put a mini monitors movement device in the back of a number of common swift. The device is very light, only 1 gram, so the birds do not feel carrying the load.

Of the monitoring results data reveal, in a year, the common swift able to fly up to 10 months non-stop and just be full on the mainland for two months. "This discovery broke the limitations of our knowledge about the animal physiology," said Hedenstrom. "10 months is the longest flying time on the birds, this is a record," he said as quoted by Science Alert on Friday, October 28, 2016.

The flying ability of the common swift Apus apus defeats another kind of swift, Tachymarptis melba, which can fly nonstop up to 6 months. Both Apus Apus and Tachymarptis melba traveled millions of kilometers during his life that an average of only 5.5 years. They could fly from Europe to Africa at the turn of the season.
After revealing the toughness of common swift, Hedenstrom not satisfied. He wondered how the common swift can last for a long time in the air and whether the bird did not sleep at all for 10 months. "Every day, at dawn and dusk, the common swift rises to a height of 2-3 kilometers. Maybe they were sleeping when dropped from a height, but we're not sure," he said. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | SCIENCE ALERT]
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Wednesday, November 2, 2016

Turned out, this killer snake to help save human

It is known as the "killer of killers" for attacking and devouring some of the deadliest snakes on Earth, due to the snake has the venom can to help save human. It is blue coral snake (Calliophis bivirgata), a reptile from South East Asia has a blue body with a striking red on the head. The reptiles also have the venom glands that can grow up to a quarter of the body length.

Although it is one of the snakes are fairly well known, but the secret behind its venom still become a mystery until now. A team of scientists who have been studying the blue coral snake believe that the animal's venom can be used as a drug for humans, especially as a pain reliever.
Meet the bona fide killer known as the long-glanded blue coral snake of southeast Asia. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1fI946)
Associate Professor Bryan Fry, from the University of Queensland's School of Biological Science who contributed to the study say that he likes to see to where it is most unusual when searching for new drugs. The uniqueness of blue coral snake and it venom reacts quickly to make it interested to learn.

"Specialization in my lab is using evolution as a map, so we are looking for the weirdest thing we could find," Fry said, as quoted by News.com.au, on Monday, October 31, 2016.

"We had a simple reason, that is, if you want to find something new and amazing to be used as a drug, you're more likely to get it from very unusual venom. From the unbelievably rare animals we have made discoveries that can benefit human health," he added.

The blue coral snake can grow up to two meters and its venom glands can reach 60 centimeters. The animal has a penchant by eating the young king cobra snake. Therefore, a blue coral snake needs to have the ability to paralyze their prey immediately.
The snake’s venom acts in a similar way to a scorpion’s by instantly paralysing its victim. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1fI946)
The blue coral snake develop toxins called calliotoxin that can cause the victims seizures like an electric shock. According to research published in the Toxin journal, it is because the animal's venom contained a number of unusual peptides that can activate all nerves of the prey and causes paralysis.

So how does it work on human health? 
For Fry and his colleague, Jennifer Deuis, the workings of the calliotoxin interesting. Therefore, the sodium channels also likely to affect the appearance of the pain experienced by humans. "By blocking the sodium channels is a promising way of healing to deal with the pain," said Deuis as told to the Washington Post.

Calliotoxin also interesting because it comes from vertebrate. Accordingly, compounds that work on a system that is more similar to humans. Do not imagine that in the future the scientists will be flushed of toxins from the blue coral snake. No, that will not be done by Fry and colleagues. Fry said, that will be developed is a synthetic compound of calliotoxin.

Fry added that the insights gained from how work of the venom to generate important drug development. "Even if it can not be a cure, it is already directly teach us about how the sodium channel works and means we have more data to design the drugs," he said.

For Fry, the research was also a lesson about the importance of conservation. Declining biodiversity may complicate his task, because the number of the most venomous creatures and unique potential to become the drug also reduced. 

Like many other species, the blue coral snake is facing the hard future and uncertain. "This is a very rare snake and it will become more scarce," said Fry. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | NEWS.COM.AU]
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