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Showing posts with label Archaeology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Archaeology. Show all posts

Thursday, September 26, 2019

5 controversial mysteries of the Borobudur temple

Behind the splendor of the great temple built by Syailendra dynasty on the 8th century AD which is also known as one of the 7 wonders of the world. Till this day,  the Borobudur temple was still leaves some big question marks about its existence.

The construction itself is estimated to take approximately 100 years, and it is not known exactly how this gigantic-sized temple was built, but based on the observations of archeologists. Formerly this temple has 1 giant stupa around 5 balustrades, because it is feared to be collapsed because the pressure was too heavy, then this stupa was changed to 1 great stupa with 3 levels of stupas around it.
Aerial view of the Borobudur temple, one of UNESCO World Heritage Site in Indonesia. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2kIISDh)
According to historical records, the Borobudur temple was first discovered in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, a British governor general who ruled in Java at that time. Not only about the construction remains a mystery, but there are several other discoveries that are still becoming a big question marks til today. Here are 5 of them:

1. The reliefs depicts the flying saucers sightings
From several of the world's ancient relics that have the reliefs depicts the sightings of the UFOs or flying saucers, it turns out that Borobudur temple is one of them. But it cannot be ascertained, why they're made such pattern. Whether it was indeed the intended UFO things or another symbol.
The reliefs was depicts the flying saucers sightings on the Borobudur temple. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2mlT7xI)
Some experts have argued that the flying saucers-shaped like could be the symbol of the 7 royal jewels in the Buddhist cosmology but still there is no valid proof of this statement.

2. Kunto Bimo Myth
If we pay attention, in the Borobudur temple there are several hollow stupas in which there's a statue called Kunto Bimo in Dharmachakra position inside it. 
The statue of Kunto Bimo in Dharmachakra position inside a hollow stupa at the Borobudur temple. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2mlT7xI)
According to legend, anyone who can touch the statue with his hands through the holes of the stupa all of his wishes will fullfill. For men, it is recommended to touch the statue's little finger. While for women, it is recommended to touch the toes. Out of nowhere the such belief began, but in some cases it has happened.

3. The hidden reliefs
There is one reliefs that is hidden at the foot of the temple and known as Karmawibhangga. This reliefs depicts the sensitive criminal scenes such as murder, rape, and another violence activities.
The hidden reliefs at the foot of the Borobudur temple, known as Karmawibhangga depicts the sensitive scenes of murder, rape, and another violence activities. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2mlT7xI)
No one knows why there are such reliefs are hidden in the Borobudur temple. The reliefs itself was first discovered by J.W Yzerman in 1891.

4. Borobudur temple architecture
One interesting thing to note from the Borobudur temple was its architecture. The Borobudur temple has a very precise arrangement, where every stone that is part of the structure are perfectly and precisely placed. Usually to do something like this requires a good mathematical calculation ability.
Cross section and building ratio of the Borobudur temple. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2mlT7xI)
The question was who can design those entire construction of this gigantic-sized temple? According to legend, the temple designer is Gunadharma, an intellectual figure of his time. But once again, there is not enough evidence to support this statement.

5. Built on an ancient lake 
A doctoral degree student from the Department of Geography, Gajah Mada University named Helmi Murwanti who mentioned about the existence of an ancient lake that was once in the area around Borobudur temple stood, long before the temple was built. 
An illustration of the existence ancient lake on the area where the Borobudur temple was stood, long before the temple was built. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2mlT7xI)
The results of the analysis of the spread of black clay deposits show that they are derived from volcanic material and rocks, coupled with satellite images that show the flow of the river that empties into this lake. It is estimated that this ancient lake was formed in the Pleistocene era and was 10,000 years old which then shrunk because of human use in line with the development of civilization around the lake.

Great research in depth needs to be done again to reveal all the mysteries inherent in the Borobudur temple, as the original world cultural heritage of Indonesia. We should be a part of the next generation to know the ins and outs of this temple, lest important information that we should know is buried forever. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | BERITA VIRAL DUNIA | WIKIPEDIA]
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Friday, August 31, 2018

Laziness was the causes of ancient human extinction?

Homo erectus first appeared two million years ago and went extinct around 50,000 to 100,000 years ago and was the first early hominid to become a true global explorer. They are known to migrate from Africa to Eurasia, then spread to Georgia, Sri Lanka, China and Indonesia.
An illustration of ancient human. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2ODr59N)
However, according to a recent study published in the PLOS One journal on July 27, 2018, the Homo erectus species turned out to be quite lazy and reluctant to adapt to environmental changes compared to other hominids - such as Neanderthals.

As quoted from IFLScience! on Friday, August 10, 2018, which reported that archaeologists from the Australian National University analyzed thousands of newly discovered artifacts and excavated from excavation sites in the Arabian Peninsula in modern Saffaqah region, Saudi Arabia in 2014 to find out the reason of these species extinction.

Their findings indicate that the Homo erectus species in the area actually tried as little as possible to make tools and find supplies. Though these ancient humans lived in areas that had easy access to rocks and water.
This is Dr. Ceri Shipton on site at Saffaqah in central Saudi Arabia. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2Mjx5Ik)
"They don't seem to inspire themselves. I don't get proof that they are true explorers, they don't have the same curiosity as we are now," Dr. Ceri Shipton as told to Sky News.

He also added that this was evidence of how the species made stone tools they found lying around their homes. The problem is, the stones are of low quality. Most stone tools are made from stones that are worse than tools in the next civilization. In fact, there are areas of better quality rock even though it requires a trip far enough from their settlements.

"When we saw the rock there were no signs of any activity, there were no artifacts and there were no rock excavations. They knew it was there, but because they had enough resources for them, so why bother -repot? " Shipton continued.
The site at Saffaqah in central Saudi Arabia. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2nE0uy0)
This is in contrast to the makers of stone tools in later periods, including early Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. They climbed the mountain to find good quality rocks and transport them in long distances.

"Sediment samples show the environment around them is changing, but they are doing the same thing with their equipment," said Dr. Shipton. Unlike the more advanced species, Homo erectus tends to use a single "generic" tool for almost all jobs.

However, Homo erectus's ability to make tools is far more advanced than early humans in other parts of the world. They can already make a hand ax. Homo erectus-type ancient humans are strong and skilled. They developed in this region for some time. But, once the river bed dries up and there is sedimentation in the river, Homo erectus actually dies because they lack initiative. "They have never been very far from sources of clean water," said Dr. Shipton.

"We also found that their technology for making stone tools is very conservative. They use the same strategies to make tools in the face of a changing environment. So, they are not only lazy but also very conservative," he said as quoted by Science Daily on August 10, 2018.

Shipton said further that the extinction of Homo erectus was caused by not having the ability to plan for the future. "They only plan for the next few hours, or maybe for the next day. While Homo sapiens and Neanderthals plan further ahead, like a seasonal migration plan," he concluded. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | IFLSCIENCE! | SCIENCE DAILY]
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Wednesday, January 24, 2018

Finally the cause of the collapse of Mayan civilization was revealed

The puzzle of causing the collapse of Mayan civilization slowly encountered a bright spot. Recent research reveals that social instability, war, and political crisis are the triggers. The findings are based on a radiocarbon dating test at one of the largest sites of the Mayan at Ceibal, Guatemala.
Mayan's ancient settlement at Ceibal, Guatemala. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2DzS05t)
Known, there are two eras of Mayan civilization era. The first destruction is known as classical destruction, occurring in the 9th century. The second or pre-classic destruction occurred in the 2nd century. During this time, because both collapse is still mysterious. Now, scientists find the cause of both the same.

"We found the same pattern in both cases of Mayan civilization destruction, and, this is not just a simple ruin, but it consists of a wave of destruction," said Takeshi Inomata, a researcher from the University of Arizona.

"Firstly, there was a wave of minor destruction that preceded, associated with war and some political instability, and then a major destruction in which many centers of Mayan civilization were abandoned," Inomata said.

Recovery ever had occurred, but again destroyed.

This finding is an important milestone after a decade of research. The results of this research provide a clearer picture of the process of the occurrence of destruction.

"We have reached a point when we can see the social patterns of Mayan civilization with the exact radiocarbon dating," Inomata said. The findings are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | TRIBUNNEWS]
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Friday, November 24, 2017

A Mysterious ancient city found in the middle of the sea

Historians and archaeologists are overwhelmed with the discovery of an ancient and mysterious city found in a remote place. The reason, the city was built in the middle of the ocean. Scientists themselves are surprised at this finding. As quoted from the Independent page on Tuesday, November 7, 2017, the settlement was finally found after nearly 100 years since the first search.
One of ancient structures at Nan Madol, located just off the main island of Pohnpei in Micronesia. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2B2dC4P)
Interest in this mysterious island was initially triggered by a satellite image. Those satellite imagery has revealed the area of ​​the location. And now, this mysterious discovery becomes the subject of further research. Nan Madol's virtual image almost uninhabitable, located just off the main island of Pohnpei in Micronesia.

A surprising fact about this mysterious place, a settlement estimated to be built there in the 1st or 2nd century. Nan Madol itself has the meaning of 'intermediate space'. As quoted of the Independent again, this place is mentioned as 8 Wonders of the World by a number of European explorers. There are 97 geometric shaped blocks, separated by water channels that are not too wide.
The location sketch of the ancient building structures in Nan Madol. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2B2dC4P)
Until this news is published, there is no comprehensive record to explain the basis or structure. But this mysterious place has also been discussed in 'What on Earth?' What on Earth? itself is a documentary series that tells the exploration of a number of researchers on various phenomena on our Earth.
This mysterious island was initially triggered by a satellite image. (Picture from: https://ind.pn/2ze4AB5)
These findings leave serious questions. In the documentary series, Patrick Hunt is an archaeologist wondering. "Why would someone build a city in the middle of the ocean ?, Why here, so far from another known civilization?" he said.

Mark McCoy of Southern Methodist University-who is leader of the research team on the mysterious island, later replied by commenting. McCoy said that the mysterious site is likely to be a burial place for elders. This site may also be a place for religious ceremonies and political power. This is because there is a stone wall that is about 7.6 meters high with a thickness of 5.2 meters in place.
Nan Madol is surrounded by a giant wall that is estimated to be composed of 250 million stones. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2B2dC4P)
These findings sparked much speculation. Again, some compare this place with the island of Atlantis which is thought to have been lost under the sea. It was reported that locals near the mysterious place would not approach the empty 'haunted town'.

The first beginnings of this place began in the early part of the 20th century. When further explored, it was found a variety of surprising facts about Nan Madol. As quoted from the University of Oregon Anthropology Department, the city was formerly the capital of the Saudeleur dynasty until about 1628. The Saudeleur dynasty, the period of King Deleur was the first ruler to unite the inhabitants of Pohnpei Island.
The structure of the building in this place is built from a number of monolithic rocks weighing 5 to 50 tons. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2B2dC4P)
Now, Nan Madol is located in Madelenihmw district, Micronesia Federation. Nan Madol is thought to have been the center of ceremonies and politics of the Saudeleur Dynasty. There is a unique story behind this city. Predicted, residents in this city number more than a thousand people. But it could be less than that.
Its population consists of a number of leaders and ordinary people. But what is surprising is the unfolding function of Nan Madol itself. Rulers have a way of organizing and controlling the number of people who are potentially their competitors. Strategy, the person is required to live in the city, not in their respective areas that are difficult to control.
"How do they arranged the giant rocks in the middle of an artificial land located in the middle of the sea?" It remains a mystery to this day. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2B2dC4P)
Nan Madol is surrounded by a giant wall that is estimated to be composed of 250 million stones. The structure of the building in this place is built from a number of monolithic rocks weighing 5 to 50 tons. There is a possibility, the stones are imported from various islands that are around. Then the question is, "How do they arranged the giant rocks in the middle of an artificial land located in the middle of the sea?"

Archaeologists then try to reconstruct the construction of these stone buildings with various methods of transportation. However, no method works. Each method tried only to move a stone weighing not more than a few tons. Until now, can not be explained more details about the mysterious building structure in place. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | INDEPENDENT]
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Monday, January 16, 2017

It turned out that dinosaurs became extinct because of the length of time hatching

The asteroid is not the only factor causing the extinction of dinosaurs 66 million years ago. Researchers also found that the length of time the hatching eggs are also influence at the extinction of the dinosaurs.

Recent research revealed that the dinosaur eggs take at least 6 months to hatch, much longer than previously thought that only 11-85 days. And according to a researcher from Florida State University named Gregory Erickson who studied two species of dinosaur, Protoceratops (dinosaur at the size of a sheep), as well as Hypacrosaurus (a big duck dinosaur).
(Pictured: Protoceratops andrewsi). Study reveals dinosaurs spent way longer in the egg than previously thought. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1i9Tf8)
After scanning the jaws with CT Scan, the team extracted some teeth and analyze them with a high-resolution microscope. By using this technique allowing the researchers to identify the von Ebner lines, the growth lines owned by all animals.

"This is the development line of animals dental. Such a circle of trees. We can use this line to see the level of development of the dinosaur," Erickson said, as quoted of the Science Alert on January 3, 2017.

When analyzing, Erickson and his colleagues found that embryos of Protoceratops was 3 months old while Hypacrosaurus nearly 6 months.

"This means that dinosaurs had a slow progression. Three to six months allows the eggs are exposed to many risks, predators, drought and floods. Parent was potentially exposed to many risks," said Erickson.

The risk factors are more greater in extreme conditions, such as when the asteroid impact occurred. Under extreme conditions, the length of time hatching will increasingly hamper reproduction, thereby reducing survival.

In other words, the length of time hatching and catastrophic asteroid impact events is a combination that creates the extinction of the dinosaurs. This research was a preliminary study. And further research is needed to reveal whether other non avian dinosaurs are also experiencing a slow incubation period. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | SCIENCE ALERT]
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Wednesday, November 30, 2016

2 Mysterious tombs found under the ancient Mayan pyramids

Two hidden tombs discovered under two Ancient Mayan pyramid in Guatemala. Miraculously, both of tombs was escaped from the target of tomb raiders. These burial sites, which have been built around 650-700 AD and was found in the ruins of an ancient city named Holmul, located about 482 kilometers north of Guatemala City.
Archaeologists discovered an unusually large tomb within a pyramid (pictured) at the ruins of Xunantunich in Belize. Beside the stairs leading to the tomb, they found three hieroglyphic panels  (covered by green screen left and blue tarpaulen right). (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gDRO0)
According to the DailyMail, the experts hope their findings will reveal more secrets about the mysterious Mayan dynasty known as the 'King Snake' or Kaanul. Archaeologists gave this nickname based on the findings of the family crest in the form of a snake's head. Kaanul dynasty ruled the area as far as 160 kilometers to the north of the tomb in Holmul. And Holmul city was abandoned when the Mayan civilization has declined between the 8th and the 9th centuries.
A map shows the location of the Holmul ruins in Guatemala, near to the border with Belize. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gDRO0)
One tomb containing the bones of a middle-aged man who probably was a member of the Mayan nobles. It can be recognized from jade ornament on one of his teeth. "The skeleton also comes with a written tibia, so it is considered as the very, very rare finding," says the researcher Francisco Estrada-Belli as told to The Guardian.
A reconstructed view of Holmul in the final phase of the Classic Period. The city of Holmul was abandoned when the Mayan civilisation declined between the 8th and 9th centuries. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gDRO0)
The tomb was found at the bottom of the pyramid built on older structures. However, an inscription written on the bone eroded so badly that the researchers difficult to read it. Inside the tomb, the researchers also found objects made from shells, jade, obsidian and human bones, as well as ceramics. An engraving that was nearby shows the names of five Ancien Mayan rulers, but the skeleton was in the tomb is not one of those who were written, said Estrada-Belli.
This image was taken from a 3D scan of a frieze that sits near one of the tombs. The main figure is a king wearing an avian sun god headdress emerging from a sacred mountain spirit head amid feathered serpents. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gDRO0)
At the second tomb found two rooms. Researchers believe that both rooms were previously functioning as the rooms of the palace. The researcher team also found the remains of middle-age man, along with benches of stone, ceramics and jade.

A jade pendant with the inscription found in the tomb was the first object that mention the name of a king snake. The text on the back side of the sun-god jade pendant reads 'Y-uuh Yuknoom U-ti Chan Kaanul Ajaw'. Alexandre Tokovinine, the team's epigraphs expert, said the meaning of the text is 'on Behalf Yuknoom Uti Chaan, the Holy King of Kaanul'.
Text on back side of sun-god jade pendant from one of the tombs reads:  'Y-UUH YUKNOOM U-TI CHAN KAANUL AJAW', ' - the name of  Yuknoom Uti Chaan, holy king of Kaanul. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gDRO0)
The pendant is believed to belong to the king of the completely different city, Dzibanche, which is now located in Mexico. "It looks a like the story of Game of Thrones or Europe in the Middle Ages," Estrada-Belli said. And these Snake kings estimated to have been at war with the neighboring kingdoms like Holmul when they dominated most of the world's of ancient Mayan about 1,500 years ago.
Close up of ceramic vessels decorated with pseudoglyphs in one of the two tombs. Both of the burial chambers were filled with artifacts including ceramics and items crafted from shell, bone and jade. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gDRO0)
Although this Snake Dynasty reigning of Calakmul in Mexico, but during the Late Classic period, the origins of the dynasty actually originated elsewhere. The last king of Snake dynasty allegedly ruled his kingdom from Dzibanche.

The researchers believe that there will be more discoveries in the region. And Estrada-Belli said that by the using of new technologies will reveal many undiscovered ancient cities. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | DAILYMAIL | THE GUARDIAN]
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