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Showing posts with label Campaign. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Campaign. Show all posts

Monday, June 7, 2021

The Manta, a super-trimaran vessel will be swept the ocean trash in 2024

Clean The OCEAN Today we're going to talk about something the Trussty team isn't used to. Because this time we will discuss about an extraordinary ship that is trying to be developed in such a way that it can become a reliable ocean waste sweeper.
The Manta, a  56 meter (184 ft) long catamaran sailing vessel's use of electricity, along with solar cells and wind turbines will make it 70% self-sufficient in energy. (Picture from: WEForum)
Well, for many people in the world the existence of garbage, trash or waste (whatever is the name) are indeed very annoying. Yes, wherever the waste is located, whether on land, sea (and if it is also existed in the air) it can be ascertained that it becomes something contradictory, especially when it is related to the issue of ecosystem and environmental conservations.

Maybe this is how a French professional yacht racer named Yves Bourgnon feels who is disturbed and annoyed by constant sighting of floating plastic wastes in coastal waters, even in the open ocean over the years. This is understandable because he has spent his career racing sailing vessels around the globe as a competitive yachtsmen. Therefore, he and other environmental activists incorporated in the 'SeaCleaners' then initiated a project to design an ocean-cleaning sailboat that is powered by the waste it collects. That's a pretty brilliant idea.
Yvan Bourgnon, a French professional yacht racer who is initiated a project to design an ocean-cleaning sailboat that is powered by the waste it collects. (Picture from: Assises-Dechets)
The outcome of the project initiated by Yves Bourgnon and his colleagues will be a 56 meter (184 ft) long catamaran sailing vessel named the 'Manta,' which according to Reuters is one of the largest waste-collecting vessels on the seas. As mentioned before, the Manta uses waste to drive electric motor that works in conjuction with the sails to propel the large catamaran.
The Manta is one of the largest waste-collecting vessels on the seas and is powered by the waste it collects. (Picture from: SeaCleaners)
The mechanism for collecting waste up to become the vessel's fuel is carried out when the Manta glides on the sea, in between its three pontoons there're conveyor belts scoops up trash as small as 10 millimeters, while the three trawl nets drift behind (to a depth of 1 meter, thereby avoiding marine life) to be added to the onboard collection.
The Manta provides the conveyor belts scoops up trash then fed into processing machines where the vessel's crew members sort it before transferring it to an incinerator to drive turbines to creates electric power. (Picture from: SeaCleaners)
This waste is then fed into processing machines where the vessel's crew members sort it before transferring it to an incinerator that shreds and melts the plastic (and even uses heat and gases) to drive turbines to creates electric power.
The Manta is said able to sail non-stop by sucking 3 tons of garbage per hour, without the need to return to nearest port to refuel or unload plastic. (Picture from: Assises-Dechets)
Another ways o generates electric power is also done by harvesting solar heat by lining the deck with solar panels and installing wind turbines to harvest power from the wind coming from the sails, so that Manta can be said to be 70% independent in terms of energy, and allows it to sail non-stop by sucking 3 tons of garbage per hour, without the need to return to nearest port to refuel or unload plastic.

In addition to having a primary function as a sea waste collector, this vessel also provides room onboard that functions as a scientific laboratory, which allows marine biologists and chemists to study the effects of plastics on ecosystems and many other studies.
Although initially launched purely as a concept, but the SeaCleaners intends to put it as a fully operational prototype that can be work collecting waste on the oceans by 2024. Furthermore Bourgnon believes that if 400 vessels such this are successfully built, and they can eventually eliminate as much as 33% of the plastic waste on the sea. 

It's a noble effort that can make our environment clean from waste, and make life better and healthier. Let's support so that it can be realized soon! *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | THE SEACLEANER | ASSISES-DECHETS | GOODNEWSNETWORK | WEFORUM ]
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Saturday, February 1, 2020

The orangutan population is increasingly critical

We haven't included the discussion on nature conservation for a long time, especially after knowing about the latest condition of orangutan habitat on the island of Borneo. 

There was something intriguing, so we on this occasion again made an article with the nature conservation-themed, in the hope that it could spark empathy for the orangutan conservation efforts. Thus the existence of orangutans in the wild can continue to be preserved.
A mobile library of Yayorin (Yayasan Orangutan Indonesia/Indonesian' Orangutan Foundation) to support its education efforts, in areas close to orangutan habitat, in Central Kalimantan Indonesian Borneo. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2RRHfzQ)
The year 2019 has been passed, the population of orangutans on the island of Borneo is increasing decreased. If previously the status of its population was critical, now the existence of orangutans in Kalimantan has entered an endangered critical stage.

"In the past, we could say the orangutan conditions on the island of Borneo are still safe. The population is between 35,000 and 55,000. But after the survey increased again (the severity levels), now it is the same as Sumatra, in very critical stage," said Rondang Siregar, an orangutan expert at the University of Indonesia some time ago.

This critically endangered status is determined by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. And the Sumatra orangutans have assumed this status in advance.
A mature male Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii). (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2O7KJgC)
Rondang further said, the reason for the increasingly falling down the population of orangutans still revolves around the classic problem, namely the orangutan lives increasingly threatened because their habitats were taken for human use. For example, in 2017 alone, the deforestation rate is still around 97,000 hectares, especially now that the numbers are getting bigger. 

As a result of deforestation makes the orangutan habitat fragmented. "Because their habitat was chopped up eventually they came out and conflicted with humans," said Rondang. 
Pongo pygmaeus morio or the Black Bornean Orangutan. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2O7KJgC)
On the island of Borneo alone, poaching and trade in wildlife are also still rife. In fact, orangutans are clearly protected by the Indonesian's Law Number 5 of 1990 concerning Conservation of Living Natural Resources and Ecosystems. 

"In the past, the price was Rp.500,000 (approx US $37) when left the forest. When it came to the port, the station, the terminal, it could reach millions rupiah. Surely it is always there," said Rondang. Due to habitat loss and poaching, the orangutan population has declined dramatically by 50 percent over the past 20 years. How tragic, isn't? 

Thus the orangutan preservations need to be done immediately and You can actively participate in this effort by making a donation through Orangutan Foundation. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | ORANGUTAN FOUNDATION | SAINS KOMPAS]
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Tuesday, October 16, 2018

Plastic surgery can help stop smoking

For smokers, eliminating the habit of smoking may seem like an impossible thing. If you feel that all efforts are not working, maybe plastic surgery can help. 

Not a plastic surgery that can stop smoking, but preparations for the operation. As is known, every patient who will undergo a plastic surgery procedure must stop smoking 2 weeks before the surgery is performed. Smoking can cause dangerous complications during surgery. In fact, many surgeons refuse to operate smoker patients. 
Illustration: Cosmetic surgery may help patients quit smoking. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2NKWbfb)
In a recent study revealed, people who were asked to quit smoking 2 weeks before surgery tended to succeed in avoiding cigarettes even forever. It is not realistic to ask for cigarette addicts to undergo plastic surgery, but the highlight of the results of the study is to stop smoking is possible if they understand the health risks.

As many as 70 percent of respondents in this study agreed that discussing with doctors and being told of the dangers of smoking cigarettes for the results of surgery made them aware of stopping.

As many as 40 percent also admitted that they no longer smoke until 5 years after surgery and 25 percent did not smoke anymore.

"Specifically discussing that cigarettes in patients with surgery results in greatly influencing them to stop," said Aaron C.Van Slyke as quoted from Yahoo Beauty.

In general, smoking will make blood vessels constrict so that oxygen cannot bind with blood cells perfectly. This makes the amount of oxygen in the blood circulation decrease and the surgical wound becomes healed longer.

These conditions not only make the results of plastic surgery not as expected, but also cause harmful side effects such as necrosis or cell and tissue death. Smokers also tend to experience negative reactions when anesthetized and there is a possibility of infection. The danger of cigarettes does not include the risks to the body and heart organs. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LINE]
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Sunday, October 7, 2018

This is what will happen to the body when you stop smoking

Many people think that he feels it's too late to stop smoking because there are already many toxins in his body. However, as quoted from the Ministry of Health website, in various studies it is still possible that there will be recovery from damage caused by smoking even though it has been done for years.

In a study of 1,500 smokers, known a year after stopping smoking, there was an improvement in the arteries caused by inhaled cigarette smoke. This means, the risk of developing coronary heart disease also decreases, as well as the risk of cancer.

Although smokers who have separated from cigarettes experience a slight increase in body weight, around 4 kg, it is known that good cholesterol levels in the blood also increase. According to research published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Maybe you are curious, what happens to the body if you stop smoking within minutes to months? The following is the review as quoted from the Medical Daily and the Ministry of Health:

  • In 20 minutes not smoking: Blood pressure, pulse and peripheral blood flow improve. This is because nicotine causes the body to release epinephrine and norepinephrine, both of which limit blood vessels and increase heart rate.
  • In 2 hours not smoking: Approximately after two hours of not smoking, the urge to smoke again causes gloom and irritability. Usually people who stop smoking for two hours will begin to feel restless. However, it turns out that it is good for his health.
  • In 8 hours not smoking: Carbon monoxide and nicotine in the lungs are reduced by half, so oxygen levels in the bloodstream return to normal.
  • In 24 hours not smoking: Maybe you will experience coughing more than usual. This is apparently a sign the body is removing some of the toxins that are starting to form in the lungs. And carbon monoxide levels will disappear in the body.
    In 2 days not smoking: Nicotine is lost from the lungs and body, then the taste senses begin to recover.
  • In 3 days not smoking: After quitting smoking for 3 days you may experience some side effects and can be more extreme.
    In 1 month not smoking: Appearance improves, skin becomes brighter, wrinkles on the face diminish, hair shakes the airways grow back, nicotine withdrawal symptoms stop or disappear.
  • In 5-9 months not smoking: Coughing and wheezing (shortness of breath) is reduced.
  • In 5 years not smoking: The risk of coronary heart disease is reduced by half.
  • In 10 years not smoking: The risk of lung cancer is reduced by half.
The body begins to be completely clean and recover from toxins after 15 years of stopping smoking. As quoted from DailySabah, it is only in the 15th year since a person stops smoking, the harmful effects of smoking completely leave the body and reduce the likelihood of smoking-related illnesses by 90%, said Professor Ülkü Yilmaz, vice president of the Turkish Respiratory Society.

According to 2012 data, more than 1.8 million people were diagnosed with lung cancer worldwide, 1.6 million of whom eventually lost their lives. And the number of lung cancer patients is estimated at 2.5 million by 2025.

Professor Yilmaz said lung cancer risk was up to 30 times higher in people who smoked. Whereas those who do not smoke, the chance of developing lung cancer is lower than 1% in people who have never smoked in their lives.

"Once the smoker stops his habit, the risk of developing lung cancer begins to decrease. After 15 years of stopping smoking, the risk of lung cancer can decrease by 90%," said Yilmaz.

Yilmaz also reminded, people should not forget that the risk also comes to those who are non-smokers and remain at risk, namely that they are always exposed to cigarettes every day (passive smoking).

Why is passive smoking more likely to develop lung cancer? Many people are curious, why do passive smokers have lung cancer more often?

According to Dr. Sita Laksmi Andarini, PhD. SpP(K), the actual risk of active smokers getting lung cancer is much greater than passive smokers. Dan Laksmi said, active smokers had a 13.6-fold risk. While passive smokers have a four-fold risk of lung cancer.

According to the results of Clare Weeden's research from Melbourne University in Australia, cigarettes increase lung cell damage and make basal stem cells more active, increasing mutations. Even so, there are also active smokers who do not have lung cancer and there are passive smokers who have lung cancer. This is because to become cancer actually requires a complicated mechanism.

Actually, there is always the potential for lung cancer for everyone. Every time, people pull and exhale. In certain moments there are mucosa or mucous membranes in the respiratory tract from the nose to the damaged bronchus. If the amount is small, the body can still repair it.

"If there is a slip, he becomes abnormal, namely the seeds of cancer. But, it is not that easy to become cancer. There is a mechanism of the body itself to get rid of the abnormal. So not everyone has cancer," said Dr. Elisna Syahruddin, PhD. SpP(K). *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LINE]
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Monday, May 2, 2016

Are YOU willing, if Our next generation will living on top of plastic waste?

The use of plastic is very closely related to everyday life. In addition to packaging, plastic is often used as the basic material needs of the building, electronics, household items or clothing. Unfortunately, plastic also has its impact is not good, especially for the environment. Because the plastic material difficult to disentangle.

From research conducted by the University of Leicester, England, suggests that the use of plastics in a variety of human activities will make the Earth coated by plastic in the next 50 years. Imagine, in every three years, humans produce nearly 1 billion tons of plastic-made of polyethylene (petroleum derivatives).
Illustration pile of plastic waste. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1Zqdey)
"With the trend of use, the plastic can be fossilized far into the future," said Jan Zalasiewicz, a professor of paleobiology at University of Leicester, as quoted by Kompas on Friday, January 29, 2016.

The study was published in the Anthropocene journal in 2013. It contained warned that the excessive use of plastic (the substance to be inert and difficult to decompose) geological serious impact.

Still according to the study, the Earth can be coated by the plastic, become the part that can't decompose in the soil, and often end up in the sea. When you have reached the ocean floor, the plastic would be more difficult to disentangle. In the underwater conditions which are dark, cold, lack of oxygen and made the plastic decomposition process be more difficult.
Bird with plastic waste in the body. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1ZqeWt)
Globally, the latest report of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 2014 noted that every year there are 20 million tons of plastic end up in the sea. The research studies that followed also by Jenna R Jambeck and his colleagues in 2015, which adds the data that Indonesia was in the second place the largest contributor to the plastic waste into the sea, under China.

With that fact, the sea can be a giant waste baskets that are harmful to the living creatures in it. Plankton, fish and sea birds, for example, will be prone to consume plastic waste it anyway. Facts will get worse if the presence of plastic waste already entered the food chain because of the condition.

In 2009, according to the research of Greeneration (non-governmental organizations following the waste issue in Indonesia), states that every single person in Indonesia produces an average of 700 plastic bags per year. When accumulated, there are more than 100 billion plastic bags (which consumes 12 million barrels of petroleum) used by the Indonesian people in one year. 

Yes, if everyone does not change their behavior, the plastic will actually be fossil in the future. United States had already been aware of it. That's why, since 2014, the US government imposed a ban on the use of plastic in the big stores.

Then, a similar move made by UK government in 2015. The country is enacting plastic pay in stores, with a tag of 5 pence per bag, the equivalent of less than USD 1,000. As a result, these policies reduce the use of plastic by 80 per cent in Wales.

Well, the paid plastic policy also began to be applied in Indonesia. Since February 21, 2016, the government imposed a policy of paid plastic bag. Tests performed for approximately three months to June 5, 2016, where the public obliged to pay Rp.200 per plastic bag while shopping in a retail store. Noted, there are 22 cities across Indonesia who participated in the trial by that date.

Of course, this obligation does not apply to people who bring their own shopping bags. Although nominally an additional price for plastic bags (even when accumulated over the year) is not great, bring their own bags every time want to going to shop, could have started by wearing the momentum of this paid plastic policy.

If the nominal amount does not become a nuisance for you to switch to the habit of bringing their own shopping bags, try to remember only the possible impact for the Earth and our children (the future inhabitants of the planet) as a result of the use of materials difficult to decompose.

Say 'No' to the plastics start from now!!

The above research can be used as the reference. Do not let future generations must take pains to sort plastic-free food of every kind of food that exist on Earth. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SORUCES | KOMPAS SAINS]
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Thursday, August 29, 2013

Save Tigers Now!!

Not only faced the threat of wild tigers living in the conservation area only. Sumatran tigers which living in Rimbo Park Zoo - Jambi was also a victim of human cruelty. The 9 years old Sumatran tiger named Peter, was poisoned to death on August 17, 2013, around 19:30 pm.

"The beast's death cause is confirmed by poisoned, according to the forensic laboratory results showed there's strychnine poison in the pet food," said Head of Jambi Provincial Livestock Office (Dinas Peternakan Provinsi Jambi), Sepdinal. Peter is the second tiger that was poisoned to death in Rimbo Park Zoo - Jambi. In early 2012, a tiger in there also dead poisoned.

Death of Peter is just one proof of the existence of the obstacles that facing the "Save the Tiger Now" campaign, a global campaign that led the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) was trying to double the number of wild tigers by 2022, to coincide with the Year of the Tiger in the Chinese calendar.
The "Save the Tiger Now" campaign, a global campaign that led the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) was trying to double the number of wild tigers by 2022, to coincide with the Year of the Tiger in the Chinese calendar. (Picture from: http://www.savetigersnow.org/)
"A century ago, there were 100 thousand tigers are exploring the forests, swamps, and tundra in Asia," said WWF in their website. Recent research indicates a rise in the global tiger population, with the current worldwide count reaching 5,574, as reported by WorldAnimalFoundation.org.👈

The conservation organization predicts, if left unchecked, the wild tigers will be extinct in just a few decades ahead. The high demand for tiger's body parts and organs poses a threat to the tiger's existence.

Tigers are hunted to near-extinction by poachers who target the skin, bones, teeth, and claws. Tiger's parts is of high value because it is considered efficacious as traditional Asian medicine.

Tiger bones, for example, is used as a remedy for various diseases for over 1,000 years. Nails, teeth, and hair, for example, believed to bring good luck and protection. Skin and wine that made from the tiger bone became a status symbol of its owner.
Leonardo DiCaprio's banner for the "Save the Tiger Now" campaign. (Picture from: http://www.savetigersnow.org/)
According to TRAFFIC, a network which oversees the wildlife trade found that during 2010-2012, the law enforcement in Asia is managed to thwart smuggling body parts of 200 tigers every year. In the last 10 years, more and 1,000 tigers were slaughtered to meet the needs of consumers in Asia. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | WORLD ANIMAL FOUNDATION | SYAIFUL BAKHORI | KORAN TEMPO 4325]
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Tuesday, June 25, 2013

Let's We Protect Antarctica’s Ocean..!

Dear friend,

We're calling on you to tell 25 key decision makers the time to protect Antarctica's ocean is now!

The map of Antarctica above shows you the 25 countries, including the EU, who collectively hold the fate of the Southern Ocean in their hands. These countries are meeting in less than 20 days to decide the fate of the last pristine ocean wilderness left on Earth.

Will you help us send a strong message to these leaders?

If your answer is yes then follow these steps:
  1. Head to our new interactive map here or click on the map above.
  2. Click on any of the 'critical to success' countries and email their decision maker to urge them to show leadership and protect the Southern Ocean next month.
  3. Share this url http://antarcticocean.org/our-impact with your friends and family asking them to take action as well.
Last year, the body that manages Antarctica’s marine environment, CCAMLR, failed to reach agreement to protect two key areas -- the Ross Sea and East Antarctica’s coastal region. The upcoming meeting in Germany faces the same challenges so we need public support in the call for them to take action.

As all CCAMLR decisions require consensus of the 25 Members, it is critical to send a clear message to these leaders that we are relying on them to show collective vision in order to protect these waters for future generations.

As the CCAMLR meeting in Germany approaches, we will be calling on your support again to spread the word and take action about this momentous decision.

Thanks for your support  
The AOA Team
 Image Hosted by ImageShack.usImage Hosted by ImageShack.usImage Hosted by ImageShack.us

Why Protect Antarctica’s Ocean?:
Antarctica’s ocean is home to thousands of species, many of these species can be found nowhere else in the world. All of these species rely on the Southern Ocean to survive. This is one of our fun infographics introducing some of these wonderful creatures. Click on the infographic and it will expand to a larger page. Scroll down to enjoy the facts about Antarctica’s species.

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Monday, November 19, 2012

No Plastic Bags, Please...!!

The growth of a country's economy has also resulted in the growth of the purchasing power of people. This economic growth also implies that the public would be "set aside" some money to shop, which will also impact on the growth of the production of waste, especially waste of plastic bags.

For example, the current Indonesian people get plastic bags is easy and "free" while shopping in stores. The use of plastic bags in Indonesia reached approximately 100 billion annually which consumes 12 million barrels of oil as a base for the manufacture of plastics. With the use of plastic bags in such large amounts that means the average Indonesian people use plastic bags about 2 bags per day.

Keep in mind, that plastic bags are made from High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum as well as Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE). Requires 1.75 kg of petroleum to make 1 kg of HDPE. In 2007 the volume of HDPE production reached 30 tons. With the strict regulations for reducing the use of plastic bags will be able to reduce our dependence on petroleum.

For example, China government according to the NDRC (National Development and Reform Commission of China) managed to save 4.8 million tonnes of oil equivalent to 6.8 million tons of coal due to the prohibition of the use of plastic bags in the country. The ban also resulted in decreased consumption of 800,000 tonnes of plastic so that the Chinese people today many who use bags made of fabric that can be recycled.

In urban areas such as Bandung according to Chief of Bandung Environmental Management Board, Ahmad Rekotomo ("PR", 03/04/2012), plastic waste has reached 150 tons/day. In one day of waste generated by city residents reached 1,500 tons was comprised of 20% inorganic waste of whom 10% were included plastic waste and other 10% non-plastic waste.

Rekotomo also said, will make a breakthrough by campaigning for one day without plastic bags in a month. Draft regulations on the prohibition of the use of plastic bags are not environmentally friendly is still under discussion at the time. According to the Representative Council of Bandung, the draft regional regulations limiting the use of environmentally unfriendly plastic bags will be difficult to be implemented by the public because the material is still a general and minimal control elements. (PRLM, 7/23/2012)

It has been proven by many scientific studies, that plastics are hazardous materials that threaten the environment. Like when a plastic bag in the trash will take about 1,000 years to decompose. Furthermore, waste of plastic bags produced by the people of Indonesia (for example) can reach about 4,000 tons/day which can certainly be a problem for the environment because of the quantity and level of danger that interfere with living beings. In fact, plastic bags can cause the death of 100,000 marine animals every year from ingesting plastic debris in the North Pacific Ocean. United Nations Environment Programme estimates that there are about 46,000 pieces of floating plastic waste per 1 square mile in the ocean.

Plastics are made of PVC when burned will emit substances Bis (2-ethylhexyl) adipate or DEHA that would interfere with fertility in both men and women. In fact, the plastic bag containing the black dye, when exposed to the heat can be decomposed and degraded to form radicals or substances known as free radicals trigger the growth of cancer cells and other diseases such as hepatitis and nervous system disorders.

The use of plastic bags that the environment and health friendly such as the use of plastic bags made from biodegradeable (naturally) is easily biodegradable is still an obstacle because the price is more expensive 20-100% of the price of conventional plastic bags so that the manufacturer refuses to switch from plastic bags.

Many ways have been done by the international community to reject the use of environmentally unfriendly plastic bags, such as the campaign "Bring Your Own Bag" which was held in Singapore in April 2007 and has successfully saved 100,000 plastic bags on the first day and also 200,000 non-plastic bags were sold which can be used many times. According to a leading supermarket chain NTUC FairPrice and Cold Storage, they cut the number of plastic bags by 60 percent.

In Hong Kong, "No Plastic Bag Day" campaign or a day without plastic bags since 2006, which was attended by 30 major retailers and NGOs voluntarily aimed at reducing the use of plastic bags. (China Daily News, 2006)

A number of other countries also began to "fight" the use of plastic bags such as China which has issued the Draft Law to overcome the problem of plastic bags. Reactions that have been prepared include banning the use of plastic bags in department stores. As with the Irish and Denmark who has implemented a plastic bag tax in 2002 and now has reduced the consumption of the use of plastic bags in the country reached 90 percent. Now all the plastic bags used in Ireland are biodegradeable.

The United States has banned the use of plastic bags and currently has 24 anti-plastic community. South Africa banned the use of plastic bags in 2003. Bangladesh banned the use of plastic bags since the year 2000, so did Kenya since 2007. Eritrea, Rwanda, and Somalia began in 2005. Tanzania banned the use of plastic bags in 2006. South Australia since 2009.

Let us stimulate concrete action to implement countermeasures use of plastic bags are not environmentally friendly. Most importantly start with ourselves at this time also for the sake of a better future with a clean and healthy environment. Are YOU willing, if Our next generation will living on top of plastic waste? *** [EKA | ARIE SATRIA NUGRAHA | PIKIRAN RAKYAT 08112012]
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