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Showing posts with label Biology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Biology. Show all posts

Sunday, October 30, 2016

Scientists found the answer, why the snakes have no legs?

Why the snakes have no legs? So far, we may be satisfied with the answer: the snakes evolved. However, two scientists from the University of Florida, ie Martin Cohn, Ph.D., and Ph.D. candidate Francisca Leal would like to delve deeper, especially in terms of genetics. They also want to know whether the evolution could make the snake became legged on the future.
(Pictured: the Burmese python) Why the snakes have no legs. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1f9wWu)
The scientists research uncover, development of limbs in snakes is determined by the "Sonic the Hedgehog" genes. And the name of "Sonic the hedgehog" is taken from a similar urchins bone are grown in the early on the snakes embryo.

"It was one of the strangest in the vertebrate skeleton," said Martin J Cohn who is doing research. Although snakes have no legs now, but the gene still exist. The gene can be "on" and "off". In the snakes, the gene is "off" so that the legs do not grow.

"In lizards, the Sonic hedgehog "on" and acting as a motor, and encourage the development of means of motion of the hand up to the fingers," explains Cohn as quoted of Motherboard on Wednesday, October 25, 2016.

In his publication on the journal Current Biology, Cohn reveals that the python's Sonic Hedgehog gene was "on" in the early embryo. That's why the python may sometimes have some sort of claw that actually is going to the feet.
These findings suggest, python may actually has the feet. No need evolution. But the phyton only should took exact genetic mutations, then the legs grew. The genetic studies on the snakes can be useful to study the evolution wider.

"I think this could be the basis to conduct a comparative study of how organs lost in evolution," said Cohn. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | MOTHERBOARD]
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Sunday, August 21, 2016

10 Rarest Flowers in the Worls (Part-2)

Certainly to classify the top ten most rare flowers wasn’t easy especially since, according to scientists, more than 270,000 types of flowers exist (which doesn’t include 10 to 15% of the flowers have not been classified in various remote regions of the world).  Of those that are rare, here are not only the top ten rarest flowers, but the ten most interesting and unquestionably stories. Here's the second part;

5. Parrot's Beak (Lotus berthelotii)
This flower is classified as a very rare species since 1884, and is believed to have become extinct in the wild, though some people believe it might still be alive. This plant comes from the Canary Islands. In 2008, the experiments have been conducted to see if the flowers named latin Lotus berthelotii can find new pollinators, but so far none of these experiments have been successful.
Parrot's Beak (Lotus berthelotii). (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dHFJz)

4. The Jade Vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys)
Jade Vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys) grow the Philippines and has attractive colors, namely blue-green like the claw-shaped flowers (or like banana?). The flowers are pollinated by bats that hang upside down while drinking nectar. This flower is now increasingly rare, hardly seen in the wild and are believed to be threatened by deforestation in the Philippines.
The Jade Vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys). (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dHFJz)

3. Gibraltar Campion (Silene tomentosa)
The flower with the scientific name Silene tomentosa only found in Gibraltar. Campion once thought to be extinct by the scientific community in 1992, when all traces of these plants disappeared. 
Gibraltar Campion (Silene tomentosa). (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dHFJz)
Then in 1994, a single specimen was found by a climber on a high cliff in Gibraltar. This discovery immediately bred in the Millennium Seed Bank and now is now growing in the Almeda Gibraltar Botanic Gardens, as well as at the Royal Botanic Gardens, London. 

2. Red Middlemist (Middlemist kamelia)
This plant is probably the rarest flowering plants in the world because there are only two samples in the world. One of them can be found in a park in New Zealand and the other located at a greenhouse in the UK. This plant was originally brought to the UK from China by John Middlemist in 1804.
Red Middlemist (Middlemist kamelia). (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dHFJz)
Unfortunately since then, the plants were extinct in China, but it grown in the UK now and remained breeding for years and recently its beautiful flowers began bloomed. It has a bright pink colored flower and looks almost like a rose.

1. The Corpse Flower (Amorphophallus titanum)
The Corpse flower (Amorphophallus titanum) is an Indonesian typical flower. Its height can reach 180 cm and diameter of 90 cm. The Corpse flower has a unique shape as if from prehistoric era.
The Corpse Flower (Amorphophallus titanum). (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dHGdh)
Reportedly, this is the biggest flower in the world. Bodiless, stemless, leafless and rootless, it requires the vine for its nourishment and support. It emits a pungent rotten flesh smell (hence the name, “Corpse Flower”) which attracts flies and beetles to pollinate it. The flower blooms for about a week before dying. (Jump to previous part). *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | TOP TENZ]
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Friday, August 19, 2016

10 Rarest Flowers in the World (Part-1)

Certainly to classify the top ten most rare flowers wasn’t easy especially since, according to scientists, more than 270,000 types of flowers exist (which doesn’t include 10 to 15% of the flowers have not been classified in various remote regions of the world).  Of those that are rare, here are not only the top ten rarest flowers, but the ten most interesting and unquestionably stories. Here's the first part;

10. Koki'o (Kokai cookei)
Now we're to Hawaii. there is a unique flower that Koki'o or Kokai cookei. Discovered since 1860, this flower is difficult to be raised. So that no word has been extinct since 1950.
Koki'o (Kokai cookei). (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dHFJz)
Twenty years later there are reportedly Koki'o flowers are still grow, but again there was a fire in 1978 destroyed the population of Koki'o tree as high as 10-11 meters. Fortunately, ther's one could be saved and now spread to 23 separate places in Hawaii..

9. Kadupul Flower (Epiphyllum oxypetalum)
This flower is easily cultivated, but is rare for the sole reason that it blooms so rarely. They are found in Sri Lanka in the wild and have spiritual significance to Buddhists. When they do bloom, they bloom only at night and then mysteriously wither before dawn.
Kadupul Flower (Epiphyllum oxypetalum). (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dHFhw)
The flowers are oddly scented and produce delicate, white flowers.  The flower also has a rich history in Japan where its name can be translated as "Beauty under the Moon."

8. Ghost Orchid (Epipogium aphyllum/Dendrophylax lindenii)
Other species of rare orchids are Ghost Orchid (Epipogium aphyllum/Dendrophylax lindenii). These orchids were not leafy, meaning do not use the process of photosynthesis. For it requires a certain fungus to be absorbed by the roots to absorb its food.
Ghost Orchid (Epipogium aphyllum/Dendrophylax lindenii). (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dHEzy)
It can be found in the forests of Cuba, and other varieties also exist in Florida low growing near the soil surface, and the sudden appearance seemed to float in the trunk. Because that's called a ghost orchid. The flowers bloom between June to August.

7. Chocolate Cosmos (Cosmos atrosanguineus)
Mexican native flowers that have become extinct in the wild for more than 100 years. However, the species is to survive as a single clone were sterilized in 1902. The flowers are dark brown with a diameter of about 3-4 cm. As the name suggests, Chocolate Cosmos emit the scent of vanilla in the summer.
Chocolate Cosmos (Cosmos atrosanguineus). (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dHFJz)

6. Yellow Lady Slippers (Cypripedium calceolus)
The name was nice is not it? The flower has scientific name Cypripedium Calceolus is a very rare species of orchids. Known, it grows in mainland Europe, but it is hard to find. There is one that is growing at a golf course in England.
Yellow Lady Slippers (Cypripedium calceolus). (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dHFJz)
So rare, so the area around the flower under police surveillance since 1917. The goal is that no one is taking and ... should not be any golf balls stray. A single stalk of flowers of this tree can be sold for US. $5000! (Jump to next part). *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | TOP TENZ]
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Tuesday, August 16, 2016

Is Piranha really dangerous?

Most popular notion expressed great flocks of hungry piranha can kill a human being. Even down to its skeleton in a matter of seconds. However it turns out, the idea was without precedent, and most are just the fragments of incomplete stories about whether piranha actually harmful to humans..
Scientists said that Piranha is a simply amazing fish with large teeth. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1d8C82)
The fact that needs to be clarified is the piranha not pose a threat to humans. Lots of documents that prove swimming in the water that full of piranhas is not dangerous. To prove it, Dr. Herbert Axelrod,  swim in a pool containing the most dangerous type of piranha, red belly piranha. Without wearing nothing but swimming suit.

To refute the myth about the deadly piranha, Today I Found Out, describes experiments conducted by Dr. Axelrod. In experimentation, he held several bloody fresh meat using a hook nearby. Flocks of piranha finally eat the meat and let Dr. Axelrod intact unharmed.

So, although it is often considered a voracious carnivorous beings with infinite hunger for meat and craze after smell blood, piranha are actually a shy omnivorous fish. Even the most carnivorous piranha type once behaved more or less like a vulture in freshwater. They eat carcasses or animals dying, not alive who can strike back.

They will eat small fish, worms, and freshwater animals that pose little threat to their own. The reason they are always 'attack' in large herds is not to kill larger prey like in the movies. They did so to defend themselves from predators. You certainly do not believe that the piranha were at the lowest level in the food chain. They usually prey on birds, dolphins, caimans, more larger fish, and of course, humans.

One study in 2005, the piranha showed an attitude of nervous or scared when left alone in the experiment tank. As pets, generally piranha will hide itself when there are people around their tank. In a large group, piranha was not too nervous, though it still has the behavior of 'swim away' when faced with large-sized creature.

Although research on piranha's behavior does not provide the answers we wanted, researchers generally agree that the piranha's reputation as a ferocious fish unfounded. And Dr. Anne E. Magurran, a biologist even commented sarcastically about this piranha. She said, "Basically piranha is a simply amazing fish with large teeth." *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | TODAY I FOUND OUT]
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Friday, August 12, 2016

A strange and rare fish found in Minahasa

The discovery of the rare fish in Minahasa by Adj. First. Insp. Jefrry Nggala, an officer with the Wanea Police in Manado, North Sulawesi taken seriously by universities and research institutes.

A shark researcher from the Research Center for Oceanography, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia/LIPI), Fahmi said that the fish found in Kalasey beach, Minahasa regency, on Sunday, August 7, 2016, is worth examining.
An Indonesian police officer found the carcass of the rarely-seen fish in North Sulawesi on Sunday. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1d3PAT)
As previously reported by Kompas, Nggala find the odd-shaped fish in the dead condition. Allegedly, the death occurred shortly before the fish found. "When I found the fish, its eyes were purple," said Nggala.

Recognizing the characteristic peculiarities of the fish, Nggala then take a picture, upload the photos to Facebook, and search for information about it on the internet. As the results of his googling showed that fish measuring about 60 cm is 'Oxynotus brunensis,' or Prickly Dogfish whose status is nearly extinct.
A fish that looks like a shark measuring 60-centimeters-long was found on Kalasey Beach in Minahasa regency, North Sulawesi by a police officer Jefrry Nggala. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1d3OZL)
Fahmi, who contacted by Kompas, on Monday, August 8, 2016, confirmed that the fish are indeed the type of spiny sharks are now increasingly rare.

"This is a new finding. Kind of like it usually is in temperate zone (in Australia and New Zealand waters)," said Fahmi.

Fahmi had contacted his fellow researchers from Australia and New Zealand. "They wonder such kind in the waters of Indonesia," he said. The discovery of brown-bodied fish in the waters of Minahasa can be construed as a "new record" of the Oxynotus genus in Indonesia. However, it can also be more than a new record. "It could be a new species if it is different from the type that is already there," he explained.

Fahmi hoped, the fish specimens that have the characteristics of large and spiny backs were stored because it can be a valuable research material. Meanwhile, N Gustaf M Mamangkey, a marine researcher at the Sam Ratulangi University in Manado said that the university had secured the rare fish specimens.

"At this time, the specimen stored at the Faculty of Fisheries and Oceanography, Sam Ratulangi University, and is planned to be carried out an 'autopsy' by the university expert teams and relatives in the near future," he said.

"Why was found stranded in the waters of North Sulawesi, let us wait for the answer together," he added through Facebook on Monday. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | KOMPAS]
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Tuesday, August 9, 2016

4 Amazing Animals with Super Abilities

Do you believe in the theory of evolution as revealed by scientists such as Charles Darwin? If yes, would you agree that living things that exist today can survive thanks to evolution. Evolution makes plants and animals can adapt to the environment.

Speaking of evolution, the process of change originated from mutations that occur in living bodies. For you who forgot, mutations are changes in genes that result in changes in the body. Interestingly, in several animals, there is a process of mutation and evolution make them have super abilities. Here are some examples.

1. Lightning-speed Stomps of Secretary Birds
No, this is not a bird that lives in the office. Secretary Bird (Sagittarius Serpentarius) is a species of large birds from Africa, and even become a state symbol of South Africa. 
Secretary bird with its lightning-speed stomps. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1cweLD)
The ability of this bird is lightning spped and super strength stomp equal to self-defense experts. Yes, secretary birds only takes 15 milliseconds to launch a kick strength of 400 kilograms.
This capability is derived from the long mutation process after the birds choose to make a poisonous snake as its main prey. Fights with venomous snakes for thousands of years to make the legs strong and fast so that the Secretary birds can kill quickly before it got bitten and exposed to the venom.

2. Chopsticks Teeth of Naked Mole Rat
These types of mice looks disgusting because almost no hair on its body. But make no mistake, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus Glaber) this proved not to be affected by cancer and live longer, up to 30 years!  
Naked mole rat. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1cweZV)
Staying in the ground forcing the rat to evolve, especially the teeth. Not many know when naked mole teeth sticking out of its mouth that can move on their own. Yes, that's right, like chopsticks.
This unique capability makes naked mole can dig faster hot and humid soil at its habitat in Africa. In addition, these mice could also run backwards (without looking) as fast as running towards the front. In addition, these mice could also run backwards (without looking) as fast as running towards the front.

3. Clean Itself Eggs of Guillemot Birds
Guillemot birds (Cepphus sp.) live around the beach or cliffs as well as live in colonies that the number of members to nearly millions of birds. High density of 'population' clear lead to big problems, such as dirt lots everywhere to even mounting. 
Guillemot birds. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1cweiU)
Naturally these conditions dangerous for eggs, which incidentally has pores to breathe chicks in it. Piled dirt could certainly lead candidate dead bird in the egg.
Well, evolution is taking an important role once again. Guillemot eggs from the time they became more waterproof, so every dirt that fell on it will quickly slip and fall. Based on research, the egg shells of Guillemot bird has a hydrophobic coating similar to the lotus leaf. This layer helps the egg to clean itself.

4. Rock Climbing abilities of Loricariidae Catfish
In the Orinoco river in Venezuela inland, scientists discovered a new species of catfish with super abilities, not just get out of the water but also to climb rocks! The species belonging to the Loricariidae family is claimed to have never been seen before in other parts of the Earth.  
Loricariidae catfish. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1cweql)
The Loricariidae catfish can climb the rock because it has a large suction mouth which can be embedded in the rock and a pair of strong fins like legs. Amazingly, this catfish fins can move on their own either step back or forward.
The ability to climb and walk, makes the Loricariidae catfish get out of the river looking for another water source during the dry season, or climbing the rocks when the floods hit. This capability can only be achieved through a process of evolution from ordinary catfish up to like Loricariidae now. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | MERDEKA.COM]
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Thursday, July 28, 2016

Here's the flower whose has shocked the world

The flowers are usually identified with the beautiful face of a woman. However, the new orchid species are found in the southern part of Colombia will not make you think so.

In the middle part of the crown of flowers named Telipogon diabolicus, looks creepy, may be said to be very scary because it is similar to the figure of the devil.
Telipogon diabolicus was named for its flowers' heart-shaped gynostemium, which look like a devil's head. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1cc1dp)
Purplish red flower was discovered through research conducted by Marta Kolanowska and Dariusz Szlachetko from the University of Gdansk and Ramiro Media Trejo of Colombia.

The flower has a height of about 5.5 to 9 centimeters, the novelty of devil-like orchids was determined by an observation of 30 individuals.

Although scary, the orchids just needs to be protected. Its spread very limited and the population inadequate so categorized as "Endangered" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
The orchid also has "distinctly clawed petals," adding to its demonic appearance, according to the researchers who discovered it.. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1cc1dp)
If this orchids species is lost because of the destruction of habitat, humans may be losing one of the most horrific orchids in the world. In the publication of ZooKeys journal as quoted by EurekAlert on July 12, 2016 ago, the scientists said that the latest catalog shows the 3,600 species of orchids throughout Colombia.

Scientists believe there are still many orchids that can not be described. Meanwhile, the habitat of many species of orchids continue to decrease so that a species potentially extinct before it was discovered.

While Indonesia itself is suspected of storing about 30,000 species of orchids. The Indonesian archipelago orchids also have a unique, such as orchids that have "horns" on its crown. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE]
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Saturday, July 16, 2016

Super-sniffer mice can be trained to detect the bombs

Rats are known as rodents often sniff out food or crumbs. Now a study conducted to hone the rats olfactory abilities so can detect mines. The discovery of super-sniffer mice is also expected to be detect dangerous diseases. 
(Illustrated: mouse) Super-sniffer mice can be trained to detect the bombs. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1cEcVX)
The researchers at Hunter College, University of New York City, created the mice that can be tuned and have different levels of sensitivity to any odors. The nature of the actual olfactory receptors have been discovered in 1991. But now it is possible olfactory system can be used on living beings. 

Basically, the mammalian nose contains a set of sensory neurons. Each is equipped with a single chemical sensors called receptors that can detect a specific odor. According to the researchers, mice like humans, each neuron pick just one receptor. Collectively, neurons select equalization receptor, so that each of the thousands of different receptors represented around 0.1% of the neurons.
Researchers have honed a mouse’s sense of smell, so it can be tuned to detect chosen odours. Red fluorescence (left) represents super-sniffer receptors connecting to the brain in the mouse olfactory system while the green fluorescence marks all other odor receptor populations. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1cEeUj)
In an attempt to understand the mechanisms of these neurons is used to select a particular receptor. Paul Feinstein, a professor of biological sciences at Hunter Collage, tinkering with the genome of mice.

He introduced the DNA to olfactory receptor genes via injection into the nucleus of the fertilized egg. It also adds an extra string to the DNA gene sequence to see if it will change the probability of the selected genes. After several attempts, he found an string work as the extra DNA that results in a series of mice have "super olfactory."

They have increased the number of neurons expressing the receptor is selected, which has a sweet smell similar to jasmine. The researchers tested the rodents’ amplified sense of smell, by using fluorescent imaging to trace the activation of the amplified odour receptor in response to the receptor's corresponding odour.
This graphic summarises MouSensors. Scientists have increased the total number of neurons expressing specific mouse or human smell receptors  in the nose of a mouse by genetically controlling specific genes. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1cEeUj)
This test provides visual confirmation that the receptors are functional and present in larger quantities than others. In the second behavioral test, the animals are trained to avoid a disgusting smell known to bind the transgenic receptors.

"The animals could smell the odour better because of the increased presence of the receptor," said Dr D'Hulst as reported by the Daily Mail on Friday, July 8, 2016.

The team plans to commercialize the technology and has set up a company called MouSensor. And Fernstein's Lab has received funding from the US Department of Defense to develop the super-sniffer mice, so that it can be trained to detect TNT and potentially find the land mines. This could mean reducing the number of soldiers and civilians who have to take the risk of sacrificing their lifes to clear mines or navigating a mine fields. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | DAILY MAIL]
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Tuesday, July 12, 2016

How the whale dung allow Humans eat fish forever?

Ocean is not just a place to stay but also a toilet. A study published in the PLoS Biology journal in August 2011 revealed that about 2.2 million species, from microscopic zooplankton to one-ton creatures, living and defecating in the ocean. Among the many types of animals, whales are most abundant species to produce "garbage".

A study released in the Canadian Journal of Zoology reveals, Sei whales which can reach a length of 18 meters and weighs 45 tons to produce 627 liters of urine a day, the equivalent of 166 gallons of drinking water. Meanwhile, Fin whales along the 26 meters and weight of 72,575 kilograms of producing 974 liters or 257 gallons of urine per day. Total the sea feces has never been measured but dengam easily found at the sea surfaces. The feces of the largest mammals on Earth that has a distinctive color and a pungent odor. 
The impressive quantities of waste produced by a whale don't go to waste. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1bobpO)
Although it is a metabolic waste, urine and feces of whales useful, and makes human beings can still eat fish. Urine provide nitrogen to the environment. While feces in addition to providing nitrogen also supplies the oceans with phosphorus and iron.

Phytoplankton, a tiny sea creatures that have functions such as a tree, using the nutrients from whale waste to grow. With the nutrients, phytoplankton are able to perform photosynthesis, providing oxygen for other marine creatures, and reproduce.

Phytoplankton growth due to the dirt of whales allows marine ecosystems remain balanced. Zooplankton eat phytoplankton. Zooplankton then eaten by other bigger creatures. Thus the food chain in the oceans work.

Joe Roman, a biologist from the University of Vermont, said that the whale is "ecosystem engineers". Several species of whales prey on creatures that live in the deep sea and throw the waste of the digestive on the surface of the ocean. Whale shows the connection between deep sea creatures and surface that will not be possible to meet each other.

Today, whales are the animals that face many threats. Scientists predicted, caused a decline in whale populations would be disastrous for the organisms that depend on the waste of whales. If left unchecked, the fish stocks as a source of protein for humans in danger. Humans may be difficult to eat fish.

"Research shows that more and more whales, the population of the fish population will also increase. This is because the pope to release nutrients that sustain the life of the fish," said Ramon as quoted by LiveScience, June 25, 2016. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE]
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