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Showing posts with label Health Info. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Health Info. Show all posts

Wednesday, January 4, 2017

Robotic surgical still pricey, but countinues developed

Researchers in South Korea are developing robots that can assist in the patient surgery, although it is recognized the development of these technologies are still more expensive than conventional surgery.

It claimed, the robot allows doctors to perform minimally invasive surgery details, thus reducing the likelihood of complications and pain, and quicker recovery time.
Doctors prepare to perform a surgery using a robot. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1hSFjA)
The doctors said the robot would be useful for malignant tumor operation in areas such as the liver. According to them, robotic surgery is the most advanced in the development of minimally invasive surgery, despite reports of a robot that helps the tumor in or around the pancreas or bile duct is still very small.

"The method of operation of this kind is largely done via laparotomy (incision in the abdomen) because it is a very difficult procedure. However, the more the surgeon performs surgery using a robot," said Park Min-soo of Kyunghee University Hospital.

According to doctors, thyroid cancer surgery by using the robot was five times more expensive than conventional methods and protected by national health insurance.

"Robotic Surgery leaves virtually no scars and provide a broader view for physicians during surgery. However, operating costs are still very burdensome to the patient," said Park as reported by Yonhap. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | YONHAP]
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Tuesday, January 3, 2017

Ebola vaccine trials claimed hundred percent successful

Researchers who recently reported the successful testing Ebola vaccine up to 100 percent to  protect against those deadly disease. Even if the vaccine was not yet been approved by the appropriate authorities, but the study reported by The Lancet medical journal is considered very effective. In fact, the research that took place in Guinea was mentioned to have an emergency supply of 300,000 doses of Ebola vaccine to prevent the outbreak returned widespread.
No Ebola cases were recorded 10 days or more after the vaccination, among the 5,837 people who received it. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1h8TzE)
"Although it is too late for those who have lost their lives because of the epidemic of Ebola in West Africa, this vaccine may be a way we survive," said Marie-Paule Kieny, Assistant Director General of Systems and Innovation at the World Health Organization (WHO) at the same time as the lead author of those research report.

Since the first Ebola case is discovered in the former area of Zaire in 1976, people have been making every effort to create a vaccine. It all started because of the emergency, but these efforts should be halted because of lack of funds.

WHO noted that approximately 1,600 people die due to the Ebola during the past few years, so become reputed as frightening disease. In 2014 an Ebola outbreak attacked 11,000 people in Africa and spread out around the world, and also killing some people in Europe and the United States. These series of events that made the competent authorities tried again to make an effective vaccine.

The test results of the vaccine trial in Guinea finally released on Thursday, December 22 2016 in The Lancet medical journal. The vaccine can not be used to stop the outbreak, but the prospects for vaccine supplies have now been brought optimism among the public health experts. The researchers have so far only suggests the Ebola possibility still lodged in various locations, such as trees and its spread is carried by bats.

The researchers say that the new vaccine still has some drawbacks, among others only worked against one of two types of Ebola virus alone, and there may be no long-term protection. In fact, some of the researchers also found that the side effects of the vaccine for the user, such as joint pain and headaches. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | SCROLL.IN]
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Thursday, December 8, 2016

Neurologists have found a way to eliminate the phobia

Neuroscientists have found a way to eliminate the specific fear (phobia) of the brains of patients by using a combination of artificial intelligence (AI) and brain scanning technology. This technique is expected to change the lives of those who suffer from excruciating acute phobia.

The process is called Decoded Neurofeedback requires no conscious effort of the subjects to overcome their fears, but rely on identifying patterns of the brain associated with a certain fear, which then 'overwritten' by using a 'gift' system.
An extreme fear of spiders and other arachnids called Arachnophobia. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gTy0j)
Even better, the phobia is gone forever after treatment. The researchers also say the technique will be used to treat a condition of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

"When inducing phobia memories in the brain, we were able to develop a fast and accurate method to read by using AI algorithms," explains Ben Seymour one of the researchers from the University of Cambridge, England.

"The challenge then is how to find ways to reduce or remove the phobia memory, without ever consciously raise it up again."

On the study involving 17 participants, and the scientists sought to associate a memory that triggers fear, with a prize or something positive.
One of the brain scans mapped with AI. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gTxcu)
"As a result, the memory features that were previously set to predict a painful surprise, are now predicting something positive," said lead researcher Ai Koizumi of the Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International in Kyoto, Japan.

In further tests, when participants are confronted with pictures that can trigger the phobia, scientists no longer find any signs of fear or increased activity in the amygdala (part of the brain that processes fear).

This treatment technique was in contrast to conventional medical therapy, which exposes the patient directly to the cause of their fear. And conventional therapy is often successful. After trying hard to face his fears, most people just get rid of phobias.

But this new technique offers a treatment process which is completely painless for the patient is not even aware that they was on fight against their phobia. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | SCIENCE ALERT]
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Wednesday, December 7, 2016

The first HIV vaccine efficacy study is conducted in South Africa

The first HIV vaccine efficacy study that will last seven years to test whether the modification of the candidate vaccine can provide effective protection against the virus that causes AIDS started in South Africa, says the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on Monday, 28 November 2016.

The study is called HVTN 702 was intended to enroll approximately 5,400 men and women aged 18 to 35 who are sexually active, and make the largest and most sophisticated clinical trials of HIV vaccines place in South Africa, in which more than 1,000 people are infected with HIV every day.
A 3D look at the HIV virus. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gRfO1)
"When deployed together with our current weapons proven to prevent HIV, the vaccine is safe and effective could be the last nail in the coffin of HIV," said Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the NIH, and the organizers of these clinical trials.

"Even a moderately effective vaccine would significantly reduce the burden of HIV disease from time to time in countries and populations with high HIV infection rates such as South Africa."

The experimental vaccine regimen tested in HVTN 702 is based on the vaccine investigated in RV144 clinical trials in Thailand, showed that the vaccine was 31.2 percent effective in preventing infection during 3.5 years after vaccination.

The new vaccine regimen was adjusted to a prominent HIV subtype in Southern Africa and small preliminary clinical trials involving 252 people showed that it was safe for the study participants and the impact on the immune response comparable to that reported in RV144.

The new clinical trial conducted at 15 sites across South Africa aims to test whether the vaccine will provide greater protection and more continuous than the RV144 regimen.

Volunteers will be randomly be given the vaccine regimen that is still in the research or placebo. All participants will receive a total of five injections over a year and the results will be known late in 2020.

"HIV has claimed many deaths in South Africa, but now we begin scientific exploration could be very promising for our country," said Head of HVTN 702 Protocol Glenda Gray, who's also the president and chief executive of the Medical Research Council of South Africa.

"If the HIV vaccine successful in South Africa, it would dramatically change the course of the pandemic," she said as quoted by Xinhua news agency.

If you want to know briefly about HIV/AIDS (for men only), you can see it in The Manly Zone. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | NIAID | LIVESCIENCE | XINHUA NEWS]
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Friday, November 25, 2016

Not a Doctor, these Engineer have found a way to fix his Cardiac problems

Tal Golesworthy, an engineer from London, England had been scored his name in the history of the medical world. It started from a dilemma when he should selecting two deadly choice, Tal using his foresight as an engineer to give a new treatment alternatives.

As reported by Independent, on Wednesday, November 9, 2016, Tal was first sentenced to suffer from Marfan syndrome at the age of approximately 6 years. He inherit this condition from his father. People with Marfan syndrome typically have a slender bone, with an unusual height, as well as some joint problems and eye.
Tal Golesworthy credits his invention as the only thing keeping him alive for the past decade. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1g3FnT)
In addition to the visible effects from the outside, Marfan syndrome also causes the body can not produce the fibrillin protein perfectly. This protein is responsible for the flexibility of the body's tissues and blood vessels.

Regarding the blood vessels are not flexible. The aortic conditions are most dangerous. If a normal person, aorta will stretch or shrink as usual, but in patients with Marfan syndrome, the aorta will only stretch and did not return to its original state. Tal is already aware of his conditions, of the examination which he did in 2000, a team of doctors who examined him advised to surgery immediately to prevent the dangerous expansion of the aortic root.

At that time, Tal Golesworthy given two surgical options. The first option, Tal was offered to replace the enlarged aorta and also replace the heart valve with an artificial valve. The first option has a very large percentage of success. But after that the patient must regularly consume the anticoagulation drug on the rest of their life.

The second option is similar to the first option, but the cardiac valve is not replaced. The second way is more effective and does not require the anticoagulation drug consumption. However, it has a small percentage of success. Knowing these two choices are difficult, Tal chose refused the surgery.

In the dilemma between does not want to bear the terrible effects of the operation and did not want to give up, Tal then came up with the proposal of an engineer. According to Tal why should replace the existing components if they can be supported by a more simple tool.
The aortic wrapping sleeve called Personelaized External Aortic Root Support (PEARS) invented by Tal Golesworthy aims to halt the dangerous expansion of the aortic root. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1g3Hhf)
As quoted from 3D Printing Industry on Tuesday, November 15, 2016, Tal came up with the most effective solution. Tal tried to create a special wrapping sleeve so the dangerous expansion of the aortic root can be prevented but does not reduce the function of the aorta. 

The first, Tal's heart is scanned and printed with a 3D printer. From the heart models, then he designed an aortic wrapping sleeve that conforms to the shape of the aortic root. These aortic wrapping sleeve is then called by Personelaized External Aortic Root Support (PEARS).

Tal Golesworthy not a doctor or the medical activists. He needs a team of doctors to verify this new invented tool. It took almost four years to convince a team of doctors and perfecting the ideas. To improve the idea, Tal has done more than 30 hours to use the MRI scans to ensure compatibility between the aortic wrapping sleeve and the aorta itself.

In 2004, Tal became the first to attempt his discovery techniques. And his surgery was successful, and since then the threat of aortic dilation and heart failure in theory could have been avoided.
Since this success, Tal technique is known as one of the most effective treatment for Marfan syndrome cases. In 2013 there have been 34 patients who underwent similar surgery. All the operations were success and the patient experiences a significant change. 

Until now reported only one patient was died, but the cause of death was not associated with the heart disease. In fact, the patients who died five years after the operation was uncover new facts. Of the autopsy report stated that the aortic wrapping tool still attached in good condition. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | 3D PRINTING INDUSTRY | INDEPENDENT]
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Thursday, November 24, 2016

The new syringes-free medical device that promises an effective treatment

Syringes have caused fear in many patients since 1850. But now, there are findings of the latest medical devices free of syringes promising an effective treatment as well as away from the pain.
Kendall examines Nanopatches. Made from silicon wafers, they're embedded with tiny spikes that are coated with vaccine. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1fygQo)
An Australian biomedical engineer named Mark Kendall made the Nanopatch, a new needle-free medical device that is smaller than a postage stamp, but it has a big effect. Its portability can help to lower the global death rate from tuberculosis, malaria, HPV, and other infectious diseases. Even this device can eradicate polio as well.

Nanopatch unlike most vaccines require cold chain protection to keep the medicinal properties from the plant to storage. The device is actually equipped with thousands of small dry nails coated vaccine. Additionally, Nanopatch attached to the skin with a spring device, push the drug into some of the cells under the skin. This feature is a boon for those areas in underdeveloped and electricity shortages.

"Thus, the immune response will be more effective than a syringe, which inserts the drug into the muscle," said Kendall. This device is also safer than syringes which injuring many and becomes one of the openings for the spread of disease to the medical personels.

"An old technology may be difficult to beat, but we have a new technology that may eventually beat the old ones," he added.

Kendall first designed the Nanopatch in 2004, when he was a researcher at Oxford University. He also has to figure out its potential uses in Papua New Guinea, a country with levels of HPV-related cervical cancer cases highest in the world, but do not have access to preventative treatment.

"Papua New Guinea is so a good place to test. The country with the size of France only has 800 refrigrators but not all of them can function properly, and not easily accessible by many people," said Kendall, who is now a professor at the University of Queensland.

Vaxxas, a biotechnology company founded by Kendall, has attracted the interest of the World Health Organization (WHO), which will conduct studies injectable polio vaccine in 2017.
Earlier this year, Vaxxas and Kendall's team at the University of Queensland's Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology and WHO, tested the vaccine inactivated polio virus in laboratory mice. The tests found that the Nanopatch effective use 1/40 of the doses of usual poliovirus vaccine.

Kendall said he realized that the discovery takes at least a decade before it could be produced commercially.

"The prospect of making something that could make a difference for millions of people is a wonderful feeling, is not there something more I wanted to do. But I will not be satisfied until this technology out of the lab and onto the places that need," he concluded. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | VAXXAS | NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC]
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Friday, November 18, 2016

A paralyzed monkey can walk again thanks to the new brain implant technology

Thanks to a new system called the brain-spine interface, a paralyzed monkey with primary spinal cord injuries able to walk again in less than six days after treatment. The interface was developed by an international researchers collaboration led by École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland. The system uses an electric implants strategically placed helps to provide a signal that is passed through the brain and leg.
Grégoire Courtine holds a silicon model of a primate’s brain and a brain implant. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1fkzLu)
In a statement, one study author Grégoire Courtine explained, "This is the first attempt of neuro technology to restore motor function in a primate." Nevertheless, he warned that there are many challenges ahead and may take several years before all the components of this invention can be tested in humans.

Without a serious injury, signals from the motor cortex of the brain will be forwarded to the spine in the lumbar region, which consists of a neuron tissues and stimulates the movement of the leg muscles. But if there is a lesion in the spinal cord, this communication can be interrupted and makes the brain can not receive the signal from the legs.
A brain implant and silicon model of a primate brain. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1fkydP)
Therefore, the researchers put an array of electrodes in the motor cortex of monkey who have spinal cord injuries, to record the signals coming from the brain when the animal walks. Then the neural activity sent wirelessly to a control computer by using algorithms to identify the encoding signal of muscle flexion and muscle extension.
Once the brain signals has been translated, the computer will submit it through the electrodes that are placed in the lumbar region of monkey who have spinal cord injuries and then stimulated electrically on the tissues will stir the leg muscles.

"The primate was able to walk after the brain-spine interface was enabled. Without physiotherapy or training is required," said co-researcher Erwan Bezard.
Detailed study has been published in the journal Nature and further research involving this technology in humans has now been approved. If the study is successful, then the system could be the latest step in the treatment of paralysis. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | WASHINGTON POST]
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Monday, November 7, 2016

Smoking can alter Your DNA permanently

Smoking is one of the main causes of cancer and heart disease. But, not many people know that smoking can permanently alter the DNA. Not merely changing the DNA permanently. It can also be associated with a number of serious health problems.

Researchers at the US National Institute of Environmental Health have evaluated the test results of approximately 16,000 people in 16 studies. Dr. Normal Edelman an adviser of the American Lung Association said, that smoking has a broad impact huge on your genes.
Smoking can alter the DNA permanently. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1fQcCh)
Furthermore, he says, most are reversible or a process that can be reversed by means of a very small change in some property of the system, but some do not. So, if you smoke, it will change genetically in ways that are not completely reversible.

"There are cases where, after five years of quitting smoking, the gene has not recovered fully or leave a genetic trail," said Dr. Normal Edelman as quoted of Times of India on Monday, November 7, 2016.

Speaking of these genetic markers, the researchers say, these signs are caused by methylation. It is an evolutionary process of DNA that can disable the genes or modify its function, which cause diseases such as cancer.

Meanwhile, Roby Joehanes of Hebrew SeniorLife and Harvard Medical School said, by quitting smoking is still better than nothing. According to him, after you quit smoking, the vast majority of DNA methylation signal never came back after five years. "Which means, your body is trying to heal itself from the harmful effects of smoking," he said. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | TIMES OF INDIA]
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Wednesday, November 2, 2016

Turned out, this killer snake to help save human

It is known as the "killer of killers" for attacking and devouring some of the deadliest snakes on Earth, due to the snake has the venom can to help save human. It is blue coral snake (Calliophis bivirgata), a reptile from South East Asia has a blue body with a striking red on the head. The reptiles also have the venom glands that can grow up to a quarter of the body length.

Although it is one of the snakes are fairly well known, but the secret behind its venom still become a mystery until now. A team of scientists who have been studying the blue coral snake believe that the animal's venom can be used as a drug for humans, especially as a pain reliever.
Meet the bona fide killer known as the long-glanded blue coral snake of southeast Asia. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1fI946)
Associate Professor Bryan Fry, from the University of Queensland's School of Biological Science who contributed to the study say that he likes to see to where it is most unusual when searching for new drugs. The uniqueness of blue coral snake and it venom reacts quickly to make it interested to learn.

"Specialization in my lab is using evolution as a map, so we are looking for the weirdest thing we could find," Fry said, as quoted by News.com.au, on Monday, October 31, 2016.

"We had a simple reason, that is, if you want to find something new and amazing to be used as a drug, you're more likely to get it from very unusual venom. From the unbelievably rare animals we have made discoveries that can benefit human health," he added.

The blue coral snake can grow up to two meters and its venom glands can reach 60 centimeters. The animal has a penchant by eating the young king cobra snake. Therefore, a blue coral snake needs to have the ability to paralyze their prey immediately.
The snake’s venom acts in a similar way to a scorpion’s by instantly paralysing its victim. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1fI946)
The blue coral snake develop toxins called calliotoxin that can cause the victims seizures like an electric shock. According to research published in the Toxin journal, it is because the animal's venom contained a number of unusual peptides that can activate all nerves of the prey and causes paralysis.

So how does it work on human health? 
For Fry and his colleague, Jennifer Deuis, the workings of the calliotoxin interesting. Therefore, the sodium channels also likely to affect the appearance of the pain experienced by humans. "By blocking the sodium channels is a promising way of healing to deal with the pain," said Deuis as told to the Washington Post.

Calliotoxin also interesting because it comes from vertebrate. Accordingly, compounds that work on a system that is more similar to humans. Do not imagine that in the future the scientists will be flushed of toxins from the blue coral snake. No, that will not be done by Fry and colleagues. Fry said, that will be developed is a synthetic compound of calliotoxin.

Fry added that the insights gained from how work of the venom to generate important drug development. "Even if it can not be a cure, it is already directly teach us about how the sodium channel works and means we have more data to design the drugs," he said.

For Fry, the research was also a lesson about the importance of conservation. Declining biodiversity may complicate his task, because the number of the most venomous creatures and unique potential to become the drug also reduced. 

Like many other species, the blue coral snake is facing the hard future and uncertain. "This is a very rare snake and it will become more scarce," said Fry. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | NEWS.COM.AU]
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Saturday, October 29, 2016

The Tasmanian devil milk are potentially conquered super microbes

Who would have thought behind its terrible name, the Tasmanian devil species (Sarcophilus harrisii) able to produce something of value to humans. Scientists say, that the milk of the carnivorous marsurpial species contains powerful compounds that are useful to eradicate the most resistant bacteria and fungi.
A Tasmanian devil seen snarling. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1f6IV7)
Emma Peel, a researcher at the University of Sydney, Australia revealed that the Tasmanian devil's milk contains six types of antifungal compounds and bacteria, while human milk is only one. The study has been published in Scientific Reports.

A test revealed that the compound of the milk of the Tasmanian devil could overcome the deadly golden staph bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). This bacteria causes food poisoning and pneumonia. And the compound components are also able to kill Candida krusei, a rare deadly yeast species.

"It's really exciting, we found that the peptide of Tasmanian devil is able to kill bacteria that are resistant to the drug," said Peel was quoted as saying of Science Alert on Tuesday, October 18, 2016.

Tasmanian devils are an endangered species found only in Tasmania, Australia. Currently the endangered Tasmanian devils, one reason is the Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) that attack the species. The disease is contagious and can be wiped out more than 70 percent of species.

Astonishingly, the Tasmanian devils could survive despite the danger of the disease for two decades. In fact, at the birth of Tasmanian devils babies not have the primary immune tissue and can not develop antibodies until 90 days of ages. The Tasmanian devil babies could be survive even should to live in their parent bag filled with bacteria.

Researchers guessed, the antimicrobial peptide found in the mother's milk is the key to survival of the Tasmanian devil babies are.  In fact the presumption was true. Once the researchers scanned the genomes of Tasmania and analyzing the molecular structure of milk, they found a compound that is six times more effective against fungal infections and anti-fungal.

Researchers are now testing whether the peptide is found safe for use by humans. Two peptides are effective against harmful bacteria, ie the Saha CATH5 and Saha CATH6. "These peptides have the potential to be developed as an antibiotic. Including further investigate whether it is possible also be used as anti-cancer," said Peel. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | SCIENCE ALERT | LIVESCIENCE]
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Wednesday, October 19, 2016

Spermbot, a new hopes for infertile couples

Millions of couples struggling to have children, and a common cause of infertility mostly afflict women; for example egg quality is not good, uterine disorders, and age. However, approximately 20 percent of documented cases is 'sole male factor,' such as sperm in low numbers, abnormal shaped, or sluggish.
Motorized ‘spermbot’ helps sperm reach egg (of cattle). (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1evalx)
This is the 'Spermbot,' a magnetically controlled tiny motor like a corkscrew threaded to help propel lethargic sperms toward the target. Spermbot circling at the sperm tails, then pushed toward-and ideally into the eggs. (This happens in the privacy of medical clinics, instead of bedrooms.) 

In the future, this tiny motor developed by the German scientists team can play an important role in artificial insemination. So far, the spermbot only tested on sperm and egg cells of cattle (as in the picture) and have not managed to achieve fertilization. 

"The concept is interesting. But I admit I still skeptical," said Robin Fogle, an reproductive endocrinology expert and researcher at the Atlanta Center for Reproductive Medicine.
Head of research as well as the spermbot technician Oliver Schmidt admitted that the motor is not efficient and there are still many things to do before it's ready for human testing. However, with further improvement, he said, spermbot could give hope the pregnancy for infertile diagnosed couples. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES |SCIENCEMAG]
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Friday, September 30, 2016

Genetic modification of human embryos successfully performed for the first time

A Swedish scientist named Fredrik Lanner was able to edit the DNA in healthy human embryos for the first time. Lanner is a developmental biologist at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm has been genetically modified the healthy human embryonic using the genetic engineering tools called CRISPR-Cas9.
Genetically altering human embryos could mean big things, for better or for worse. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1eMFkx)
He studied the embryos were modified during the first seven days and stopping the growth of its development in the past 14 days. In the initial two weeks, he crippling series of genes have been identified as a gene that plays an important role in normal embryonic development, hoping to help him learn more about the genes involved with infertility.

Theoretically, this research may help us better understand the role of genetics in the development of the embryo, so that it can be used to prevent certain diseases. However, some scientists are concerned, that the DNA editing could have dangerous consequences and could be at risk of entering the faulty gene into the human genome, then causing the new disease.
Fredrik Lanner (right) of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm and his student Alvaro Plaza Reyes examine a magnified image of an human embryo that they used to attempt to create genetically modified healthy human embryos. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1eMGCp)
The chairman of the Center for Genetics and Society, Marcy Darnovsky also expressed her concern. According to her, the genetic modification of human embryos could bring a loss equal to the benefits.

"When genetically modifying human embryos, that means you change the genetics of all cells in the body of the fetus, future generations of humans. This change is permanent and irreversible, we do not know what would happen," said Darnovsky.
How the DNA editing technique works. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1eMGOO)
Nowadays, it seems there will not be much danger as feared by scientists. Because, to make genetically engineered babies is illegal in Sweden and the use of human embryos for any kind of research also is illegal in the United States.

Additionally, Lanner also agree that more research is needed before the experimental production of genetically modified babies done, to ensure that the Darnovsky concerns not be true.. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | MEDICAL DAILY]
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