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Showing posts with label Geology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Geology. Show all posts

Saturday, December 17, 2016

One of the tsunami triggers in Indonesia was sitting under the Banda Sea

A gaping trench in the sea floor in the Banda Sea in eastern Indonesia. The rips in the earth's crust was stretched down about 7.2 kilometers and with broad reaches 60 thousand square kilometers, or about the size of the region of Tasmania in Australia.
Geologists have found the largest exposed fault on the Earth laying under the Banda Sea. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1glhLP)
The geologists have recently discovered that the fault called Banda Detachment was one of the biggest faults on the Earth, that through the Ring of Fire or the area in the Pacific Ocean where the large numbers of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occured.
This fault, the Banda Detachment, represents a rip in the ocean floor exposed over 60,000 square kilometres.. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1glhQt)
According to the US. Geological Survey (USGS) about 90 percent of earthquakes and 81 percent of the greatest earthquakes on Earth occur along the Ring of Fire. Even with 75 percent of volcanic eruptions.

As we all knew, the Pacific Ring of Fire stretches from New Zealand, passed through the top of the Australian continent, some parts of Indonesia, Japan, and then to the West Coast region of the United States before ending up at the bottom of South America.

A number of recent earthquake events has proved the vulnerability of the Ring of Fire. On November 22, 2016, there's an earthquake with 6.9 on the Richter scale rocked Fukushima Prefecture in Japan, then followed by a little tsunami. Meanwhile, on Wednesday, December 7, 2016 at 5:03 pm, an earthquake measuring 6.5 on the Richter scale was shook partially Aceh. More than 100 people died from it.
The Ring of Fire or the area in the Pacific Ocean where the large numbers of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occured. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1glhQt)
And, the world has not yet forgotten an undersea earthquake measuring 9.1 on the Richter scale triggered a giant tsunami that hit a number of beaches in the Indian Ocean, including Aceh which killed more than 200 thousand people in 2004.

However, the most catastrophic earthquakes that occur along the Ring of Fire was happened on Sunday, May 22, 1960. At that time, an earthquake of 9.5 on the Richter scale shook Chile.

According to a senior lecturer of the Geotechnical and Earthquake Engineering at the University of Technology Sydney, Behzad Fetahi, that there's the limits of tectonic plates meet in the Ring of Fire. "They are engaged with each other and push each other, it is one of the most active area," he said, as quoted by News.com.au on Thursday, December 15, 2016.

A research on Banda Detachment conducted by a team of geologists from the Australian National University and Royal Holloway University of London. The team studied a map of the seabed in the Banda Sea in the Pacific Ocean before extrapolating with field activities in formulating their hypothesis.
The scientists have for the first time seen and documented the Banda Detachment fault in eastern Indonesia - and worked out how it formed. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1glhQt)
The faults in the Banda Sea is predicted to cause the earthquake and tsunami that is estimated to be catastrophic (not only because it is located in the Ring of Fire). Earthquakes that occur around the deep ravine that could make it shifted (slip), triggering more violent tremor on the surrounding islands.

An abrupt shift on the abyss that can release energy in the form of waves, and causing an earthquake more powerful. Over the decades, it has emerged a variety of questions about how the deep trench formed in the Banda Sea.

"The trench has been known to exist for 90 years, but until now no one could explain why was so deep," said Jonathan Pownall, lead researcher of the Australian National University.

The researchers identified that the deep trench in Banda Detachment was created by the subduction of the past (when a tectonic plate moves beneath another plate, is forced down, pushed through the crust into the mantle).

Dr. Pownall hope these findings will help the various parties to assess the potential danger of tsunami and earthquakes in the future.

"In the extreme tsunami risk areas, knowledge about the great fault such as Banda Detachment (has risk of causing a massive earthquake during a shift) is fundamental to be able to predict the tectonic disaster," he said.

The Australian National University report associated with these deep trench also said that there is no evidence that the recent quake occurred around Banda Detachment. However, the researchers can not yet confirm it. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | ANU | DAILYMAIL]
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Saturday, December 3, 2016

Scientists were found the evidence that the ancient Earth was no Oxygen

Researchers returned to find evidence that will help uncover the life of the early Earth. This finding suggests that early in life are likely Earth is not yet contained oxygen. It is shown by the findings of fossilized bacteria are able to survive without oxygen.

The fossilized 2.52 billion years old bacteria were found in two separate locations in Kaapvaal Kraton, Limpopo Province, South Africa. This place is two remaining areas on Earth, where one can still see the rest of the 3.6-million-2.5 million years old Earth's crust.
A closeup of the fossilized Neoarchean bacteria, a 2.5 billion years old or much longer bacteria there than when oxygen is expected to begin fulfilling the Earth's atmosphere. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gLZ7U)
According to researchers, the fossils found in a layer of hard rock which rich with silica content is oxidize sulfur to survive. It shows that life on the Earth's early life can survive in low oxygen conditions.

"This is the oldest sulfur bacteria ever found. And this discovery helps us reveal the diversity of life and ecosystems that existed before the Great Oxidation Event," said Andrew Czaja, a professor of geology at the University of Cincinnati as quoted by New Atlas, on Thursday, December 1, 2016.
Professor Andrew Czaja shows the layer of rock where the bacteria were discovered. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gLZ7U)
Great Oxidation Event itself is a time when the population of blue-green algae cyanobacteria exploded. They dispose of the amount of oxygen in large quantities to build up the atmosphere for the first time.  

The experts argue that this period is a period of the first time the Earth was 'breathing'. This period is predicted to occur between 2.5 billion to 2.2 billion years ago. And researchers believe before the Earth is filled with oxygen, the oceans are full of anaerobic bacteria, the bacteria that metabolize their food without oxygen or sunlight.

But the problem there is little evidence about the presence of this bacteria. Due to the lack of evidence of these creatures in the early history of the Earth, researchers can not explain how or when they first appeared.
"So these fossils are the oldest living organisms that live 2 billion years before the plants and trees," Czaja said. Plants and trees are estimated to appear about 450 million years ago.

The findings of these fossils now has given a clear indication that they were really there at least 2.52 billion years ago. While providing an overview of how simple life forms on the planet without the abundance of oxygen. And this study has been published in the journal Geology. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | NEW ATLAS]
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Thursday, December 1, 2016

An object resembles the pyramid discovered in Antarctica

The world of internet again bustling by the discovery of an object like a pyramid in Antarctica. Since last week a number of Western medias busy to proclaim an object like the pyramid captured by the Google Earth.

Some scientists was interviewed speculate that the object was an evidence of human civilization ever existed in the northern hemisphere. In fact, there are some scientists who say that the object is a relic of an alien who had stopped at the Earth. But is it true that the object is a pyramid? If true, and then who has built it? Human or alien?
This Antarctic mountain bears a striking resemblance to a pyramid captured by Google Earth. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gFeUP)
According to several scientists interviewed by Live Science, the object like pyramid shaped was actually a mountain which has similar sloping sides to the pyramids in Egypt. The sides were created as a natural phenomenon.

"This is a mountain that looks like a pyramid, Usually there are two sides like a pyramid, rarely has four sides (like a pyramid)," said Eric Rignot, an Earth science expert at the University of California as quoted by Live Science on Tuesday, November 29, 2016. According to him, the pattern similar to pyramid was many in nature. Some mountain on Earth, he said, had the sides like a pyramid.

The mountains like a pyramid itself is one of several peaks in the Ellsworth Mountains of Antarctica. The mountain was first discovered by US pilot, Lincoln Ellsworth on his journey on November 23, 1935, as described in a study of US Geological Survey (USGS) in 2007.

The nameless peak is located south of Ellsworth Mountains, in an area called Heritage Range. In that place is found some rare fossils of ancient creatures that about 500 million years old.

Meanwhile, according to Mauri Pelto, an environmental studies expert at Nichols College, Dudley, Massachusetts, the sides similar to pyramid at the mountaintop was caused by erosion of permafrost that occurs over millions of years.

He explained that the snow or water usually fill cracks or crevices of the mountain during the day. At night, when the temperature dropped dramatically, water or snow will freeze, expand and turn into ice. As a result of this expansion make the slit on the mountain enlarged.

This process is ongoing so as to create large cracks and that ultimately led to these parts were destroyed. This process has already been studied in another mountain shaped like a pyramid, like the top of the Matterhorn mountain in the Alps.
A pyramid-shaped peak called Matterhorn in the Alps. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1gFeUP)
The nameless mountain in Antarctica has three sloping sides of the same. Pelto suspects that the three sloping sides were eroded at the same speed.

"I suspect, rock type on the three sides was fairly uniform," said Pelto. The fourth side of a mountain that looked more different. He extends eastward, not tilted like the other three sides.

He also denied that the mountain was newly found. He said that near the mountain, precisely in the south, there is a research station belonging to climate scientists. The area was known as Patriot Hills. "You can see the mountain from Patriot Hills," he said then. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE]
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Monday, November 14, 2016

Cause of the disappearance of the Atlantis began to unfold

The legend of Atlantis is one of mankind's oldest myths. This legend was first echoed by a Greek philosopher named Plato around 360 BC. He described Atlantis is a prosperous country that disappeared without a trace after sinking into the sea.

Several hundred years later, many people believe that Santorini is one of the islands in the Cyclades islands in the Aegean Sea is the mythical Atlantis. But unfortunately, this beautiful country with Minoan culture was swept away by a tsunami caused by a volcanic eruption.
Many people believe that Santorini was once Atlantis (artist's impression), as the description given by Plato has many common points with the story of the Minoan Akrotiri, which also disappeared without leaving any trace. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1faiU7)
And a new study shows the possibility of a tsunami caused by pyroclastic flows (clastic rocks formed from volcanic material) into the sea. This theory is considered challenging previous theories.

The eruption at Santorini in 1500 BC caused a large tsunami suspected as a factor that led to the end of the Minoan culture. Evidence of at least nine meter high waves have been found at several sites near the island of Crete, Greece.
A new study suggests that the tsunamis may have been generated by the pyroclastic flow of volcanic material into the sea – a theory that challenges previous explanations for the tsunamis that led to the demise of Minoan culture. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1faiU7)
Previous studies assumed that the collapse of the volcano's crater (caldera) into the sea and caused a tsunami. But researchers from the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens put forward a different theory. The researchers analyzed the seabed beneath the caldera, and found evidence of the caldera is not connected to the sea when it collapsed.

The latest findings said that the caldera flooded by sea water after the explosion occurred. But the flood itself is not possible to create a tsunami. Instead, the researchers believe that the pyroclastic large volumes of volcanic flow in a high speed into the ocean, so it is strong enough in moving water to create a tsunami.
A diagram shows the development of Santorini caldera prior to, during, and following the Late Bronze Age eruption. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1faiU7)
In their paper published in the journal Nature, researchers led by Paraskevi Nomikou, write interesting findings as follows; "A tsunami in regional scale associated with volcanic eruptions created by a pool of pyroclastic flows, which coupled with the possibility of quickly sliding of the mass pyroclastic deposits from the mountain slopes into the sea."

And other evidence to support this theory is the pyroclastic deposits in Santorini has a thickness of up to 60 meters. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | DAILYMAIL]
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Saturday, September 24, 2016

There is a 'terrible power' under the surface of Lake Toba

Around 74,000 years ago, a supervolcano or erupted, and killing about 60 percent of the Earth's inhabitants at the time. The supervolcano like that until now still has the potential to cause dramatic eruptions that can affect globally. However, the exact cause of the volcano can erupt so earthshaking still largely unknown. 
Behind the beauty of Lake Toba, there is a sleeping giant underneath. The scientists have used the remnants of the ancient eruption there, 74,000 years ago, to learn more about these natural disasters. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1eD9XL)
But now, armed with traces of ancient eruptions, the scientists managed to uncover the causes of these terrible natural disasters. Ivan Koulakov and colleagues from the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences researching an underground area that is now Lake Toba, in North Sumatera, Indonesia. By using the seismic data, Koulakov sure that's where the ancient supervolcano located.
Ivan Koulakov and colleagues from the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences looked underneath what is now Lake Toba (shown on map) where the ancient supervolcano existed, using seismic data. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1eD9XL)
"The latest super eruption at Toba, which occurred 74,000 years ago, is regarded as the largest volcanic eruption in the universe of the Pleistocene era," the researchers said.

"The eruption spewed a huge volume of material, such as solid rocks which has the estimated volumes of 2,800 up to 5,300 cubic kilometers," added Koulakov.
The new model revealed a system of complex, multilevel tunnels of magma reaching down to depths of over 93 miles (150km). At a depth of around 93 miles (150 km), gases and 'basic melts' - melted rock low in silicon dioxide - are generated. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1eD9XL)
Koulakov and his team want to find out why the supervolcano can release giant-sized materials. In addition, they also want to know why there was a long pause between the supervolcano eruptions.

To learn how to work these volcanoes, Koulakov and his team developed a model based on seismic data. By using the model, they found that the supervolcano is controlled by a very large magma reservoir. These reservoirs keep tucked away deep magma beneath the crust thickness up enough pressure to create a very powerful eruption.
The researchers found supervolcanoes may be controlled by large, dense magma reservoirs. These reservoirs keep the magma stored away beneath a thick overlying crust until an eruption takes place. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1eD9XL)
Through the created model, Koulakov shows magma intricate system of canals and terraced to a depth of more than 93 miles (150 kilometers). At that depth, gas and other basic melt is produced. The gas and melt it then rose to a depth of 75 km and create huge magma reservoir. And when it reaches a critical pressure caused by trapped gases and molten, magma reservoir began to be emptied and the bulk will go up through the crust. 

The Toba supervolcano is not the only one in which the magma reservoirs have been discovered underneath. The same structure is also found under the Yellowstone, in the United States. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | DAILY MAIL]
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Tuesday, June 28, 2016

Researchers managed to create an artificial lava

Molten rock and water can be an explosive combination. That is why, scientists are trying to learn. Yes, when the molten rock mixed with water, it can show a strange and unexpected response, even dangerous things. 
UB geologists make their own lava — For science, of course. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1bbrRn)
Geologists from the University at Buffalo seeking a better understanding of the interaction. They had perfected their recipe to create lava. And this artificial lava almost equally striking with real lava.

Making the lava by the university is one of the largest in the world. Each batch put 10 gallons of basaltic rock in the high-powered furnaces, heating to a temperature of 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit. Once the process is perfected, it's likely on this summer the researchers will begin to expose the molten rock with water.

Alison Graettinger, a geologist at the University of Buffalo said that previous studies ever conducted by Universität Würzburg in Germany. They use a small number of man-made lava, only the size of a coffee cup.

"Before, no one does it on this scale, and the interaction of lava and water is not well understood," Graettinger said in a statement.

"Sometimes when water and lava meet, lava will appear completely ignoring water. Sometimes, lava will cool down and form a typical crack pattern, or other forms of interest such as lava pillow. And sometimes, a strong reaction. Why?"

The research, funded by the National Science Foundation, was carried out in a field station in Ashford, New York.

According to the project leader, Ingo Sonder, a research scientist at the University at Buffalo's Center for GeoHazards Studies, big explosive event does not happen often, but this proves that the interaction of lava and water can pose a serious threat. In 2010, for example, the eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland turned into an explosive blast after magma melts on a large number of ice.
"As geologists, we want to understand what conditions would produce an explosion? How much water do you need? And how long?" Sonder said further.

Basically, the lava experiment is much more complicated than the baking soda and vinegar experiment. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO | THE HUFFINGTON POST]
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Friday, May 13, 2016

The oldest crystals formed from an Asteroid

Some pieces of the oldest rocks on Earth have been discovered, and named Zircon crystals. The researchers also found that the old stones are formed in the crater of which came from the asteroid at the time of the initial formation of the planet. The Zircon crystals are older than 4 billion years, while the Earth itself has an age of 4.5 billion years. And this ancient crystal is arguably in the history of planet Earth.

Fifteen years ago, the first crystal had been made the headlines when the research going into the rock formations that revealed the presence of water on the surface of the Earth after the planet formed. Since the study was published, scientists hope the Zircon crystals can give another answers about the history of this planet. 
A zircon crystal from the Sudbury crater pictured through an electron microscope. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1aBlQO)
Previously, the scientists believed that Zircon crystals formed when tectonic plates collide, in a process similar to the disorder that creates the mountains, volcanic activity and earthquakes. However, most researchers believe, the stone was originated of tectonic plates about 3 billion years ago. Thus, Zircon crystals formed about 1 billion years before the tectonic plates can create the stones.

In a recent study conducted by Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, the investigators pursuing the hypothesis that crystals formed in the crater that was created when an asteroid hit the Earth. To test their idea, then the researchers collected the Zircon crystals from Sudbury crater in Ontario, Canada, which have confirmed the second oldest on Earth nearly two billion years old.

"What we found was quite surprising. Many people think the zircon crystals are very old-fashioned not possibly have been formed in the crater, but now we know they may choose," said Gavin Kenny, a researcher from Trinity College Dublin and co-author of the study, as reported by LiveScience on Friday, May 6, 2016.

The impact of this asteroid is made Earth's crust to melt and form a lava lake. Most of the area around the crater heated and starting to cold, on condition that allows the Zircon undergone a process of crystallization.

"Our new findings would fill more than what we know about the Earth," said Kenny further. By determining the origin of the crystals will help the scientists gather how the planet was form in the beginning and how the life began to emerge on the Earth. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE]
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Thursday, April 28, 2016

The rise of the mountain's more horrible than the nuclear threat?

It turns out there is more terrible than the North Korean nuclear threat, which is a force of nature. The international team is now researching Mount Paektu, which is located in the North Korean border with China.

Last eruption of Mt. Paektu happened thousands of years ago and the second largest in recorded in the human history, after the eruption of Mt. Tambora in Indonesia in 1815. In recent years the volcano showed signs of rise. If that happens, the consequences could be catastrophic.
Mount Paektu, on North Korea’s border with China. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1ZercQ)
"If until the eruption happens, the impact will be felt by Korea and China," said James Hammond, one of the scientists of University of London who involved in the study, as quoted on the New Scientist on Monday, April 18, 2016.

In 946 AD, the eruption of Mt. Paektu is the highest mountain in the Korea, threw about 96 cubic kilometers of material into the sky. The number is 30 times that of a burst of material from Mt. Vesuvius that buried the city of Pompeii in 79 AD. At that time Mt. Vesuvius throws 3.3 cubic kilometers of material.

Although the size and impact of the eruption is enormous, but little information is known about the mountain that is considered 'sacred'. Why is sacred? North Korean leader Kim Jong-il (Kim Jong-un's father) touted was born in the secret camp near Mt. Paektu. That said, his birth was full of the supernatural signs like appearance of bright stars, the season suddenly changed from winter to spring. The founder of North Korea, as well as lifetime president Kim Il-sung also reportedly born in the mountain.

Need cooperation across the country to uncover the mystery of Mt. Paektu. The researchers of western countries was involved in the study, because the North Korean investigation team, led by Ri Kyong-song of the government’s Earthquake Administration in Pyongyang, requires access to extra scientific equipment and know-how.

The China volcanologist who also monitors the mountain that they call as Changbaishan, also require information from the Korean side. Both the China and North Korea are continuing to monitor Mt. Paektu more closely since the mysterious bulge visible in and around the mountain between 2002 and 2005. The GPS study shows there are the ground deformation, increasing of emission gases, and seismic rumble.
The mysterious bulge visible in and around the mountain between 2002 and 2005. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1ZercQ)
"It is a priority for both countries. Both have volcano monitoring networks, to keep watch over Mt. Paektu," said Hammond.

Hammond and other researchers from Western countries who were invited to North Korea in 2011, to install six seismometers within 60 kilometers from the mountain -- to detect seismic waves from earthquakes elsewhere in the world through the ground beneath Mt. Paektu.

The seismic waves propagate at different speeds through rock solid and liquid, giving information to the scientists on related what was on the bottom of the mountain. The results show that there is a vast magma beneath the volcano. "It's a mushy mixture of rocks and crystals that melt down through the crust in the depth of about 35 kilometers," says Hammond.

Yet there is no liquid magma pools that form near the surface -- which can be considered as the early symptoms of the eruption. And the researchers should continue to answer many questions about Mt. Paektu, such as where is magma pools formed, how much, and what the implications are.
In 946 AD, the eruption of Mount Paektu, Korea’s highest mountain, blasted 96 cubic kilometres of debris into the sky. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1ZercQ)
"When the amount of magma reached a certain point with the appropriate pressure, then the volcano may erupt," said Hammond. Until now, researchers have not been sure how much magma accumulated up to Mt. Paektu could erupt.

That's why, Hammond says, the collaboration will continue for some time. "We will discuss what we will do during the next 12 months, and long-term for 5 to 10 years into the future," he said further. After many years of working together, both teams should know each other well, talking about the geology through a translator. There is no political content at all, solely to science.

"There is no political element at all. We are working together to understand a huge volcano. The fact we are entering into a dialogue is a good example that science transcend political differences," said Hammond.

Even Ri Kyong-song spent about a month in the UK completed the study results and draft for publication. North Korea intends to open the door for scientists, through an agency called Piintec. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | NEWSCIENTIST]
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Tuesday, April 26, 2016

How hot the volcanic lava are?

When the volcanic lava visible to the eye, the object seemed to burn red and tasted very very hot. What is the temperature of volcanic lava are?

As reported by LiveScience on Thursday, April 21, 2016, the lava is molten rock that shoots out of the volcano. These such objects can flow at temperatures of thousands of degrees Fahrenheit.
Basalt lava flow. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1Zh1LS)
According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the volcanic lava at the lowest temperature is equivalent with the temperature of pizza oven, ie 570 Fahrenheit. In the middle range of lava temperatures, the dark red lava often seen slowly crawling across parts of Hawaii , measures around 895 Fahrenheit.

As for the red-hot lava flows, can reach temperatures of up to 1,165 Fahrenheit. The temperature is still lower than the lava flows with the glowing orange, where the temperatures reach 1,600 Fahrenheit at that point.

And when rock is seriously melting, such as the magma within the Hawaiian volcano of Kilauea, the temperatures can reach 2,120 Fahrenheit or 1,160 Celsius equivalent. Wow!! That's very very hot. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE]
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