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Showing posts with label Astronomy. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Astronomy. Show all posts

Sunday, October 2, 2016

Are these valid evidence that the Earth and Moon are One before?

The scientists claimed that they have finally found evidence suggesting that the Moon was formed during a collision billions of years ago. Currently the scientists say, a layer of iron and other materials inside the Earth is proof that the Moon formed from the remnants of a collision.

When the Earth were formed at 4.5 billion years ago, scientists believe that the Moon was formed a few years later, ie, after a similar Mars-sized object slammed into Earth, then still young.
Scientists believe the moon formed millions of years after proto-Earth first formed, when an object the size of Mars smashed into the young planet (illustrated). Now simulations to recreate the stratified layers deep within the planet have added weight to the theory. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1eO79Y)
The hypothesis of a massive collision was mentioned, that a protoplanetary (planet-sized Moon) called Theia crashed into the Earth billions of years ago. And from these collisions resulted in a number of debris removed from the core, and Theia join and become part of the Earth. Meanwhile, the Moon formed from the debris leftover collision.

By using seismic data from the Earth's core and mantle, the researchers at Johns Hopkins University revealed that a layer of iron, silicon, oxygen, and other elements that have a thickness of hundreds of kilometers.
Researchers used seismic data of the Earth's interior, revealing a layer of iron, silicon, oxygen and other elements hundreds of kilometres thick above the core. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1eO79Y)
In a simulation in the laboratory revealed that after the massive collision, a mix between the object and the Earth's core will leave traces in the form of stratified layers, as seen near the Earth's core today.

"We say that the stratified layers is valid evidence," said Professor Peter Olson, an Earth and Planetary Science researcher at Johns Hopkins as quoted by the Daily Mail on Wednesday, September 28, 2016.

To prove this hypothesis, the researcher group conducted the simulated mix with fluid, to create turbulent mixing residing on the Earth in ancient times. The researchers used a liquid layer that can not be mixed, namely oil and water, to represent the Earth's mantle and core. They dropped saline or ethanol into the tank more than 60 times, to simulate the collision and monitor the next mixing happens.
According to the giant impact hypothesis, the collision 4.5 billion years ago would have caused a huge amount of debris to be ejected from the core, with Theia fusing and becoming part of the Earth and the moon (pictured) forming from the debris. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1eO79Y)
From these experiments it is known, more greater the density and volume of fluid dropped into the tank, then the mixing will occur much more. When compared with the initial collision event, if there is an object large enough to hit the Earth, then the entire core will be a mixture materials.

Whereas, if an object is equal to or smaller size of Mars slammed into Earth (like Theia), then the mixing will produce a layer that is like on the inside of the Earth at this time.

It turns out there is another theory about the birth of the Moon presented a number of researchers in the discussion of the Royal Society. Namely, the Moon is a 'gift' from Venus or Earth may 'steal' it from Venus. Planet Venus first alleged had Moon, but then lost. The natural satellite was then caught on the Earth's gravity.

"I think part of the key to understanding the Moon is probably the fact that Venus has no satellites. Surely we should learn more about Venus," said Dave Stevenson, a professor of planetary science of Caltech University.

As a guide, the Earth has one moon, Uranus has 27, Saturn and even more than 50, but Venus did not have at all. The theory of "catch the Moon" assumes the Earth using its gravitational force to pull the celestial bodies into the orbit.

But this theory is easily broken. Moreover proven, geochemical composition of the Moon and Earth are similar. Of the analysis of Moon rocks brought by the Apollo-NASA missions has shown that the Moon has the isotopic composition is very similar to the Earth.

And if the Moon and Earth had identical isotopic, then the theory of 'catch-Moon' difficult to sustain. According to Alex Halliday of Oxford University. The similarity of isotope shows that the Moon and the Earth formed from the same materials.

"However, the new theory was interesting. One reason, the Earth and Venus are close to each other. They have the same mass, and people will think they may have formed in the same way," added Alex Halliday.

"So, the question is, if the Earth and Venus formed in the same way, why the Earth has the Moon and Venus are not?" *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | DAILYMAIL]
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Friday, September 23, 2016

Nearly 86% of people should change their horoscopes, if there are thirteen zodiac now

During this time people know there are twelve zodiac signs, ie Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. It was based on the ancient  Babylonians calculation at 3,000 years ago, in which the calculation result was grouped into twelve zodiac.

Each zodiac is represented by the constellations that will pass the Sun at different points when the Earth travels around the star. But according to NASA, the ancient Babylonians has outsmarted the constellation.
NASA didn't change your zodiac sign, Astrology isn't real. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1eAxm8)
The Sun is actually not pass through each constellation consistently with the time vary widely. According to the NASA, actually the ancient Babylonians know that there are the 13rd constellation named Ophiuchus, but not inserted because it is not aligned with their calendar.

NASA posted it in a scientific articles intended for children. However, later emerged the fray. The US space agency was touted change the zodiac, from 12 to 13. If that is true, then 86 percent of the Earth's population will change the horoscope.

But NASA has denied the accusation. "Have you recently heard that NASA had replaced the zodiac? No, we do not do it," wrote the US space agency was in Tumblr.

"Here at NASA, we learn astronomy, not astrology. We do not replace any of the zodiac, we just did the math. Astrology is another thing. It's not a science. There was nothing to indicate that astrology can be used to predict the someone's future or personality based on date of birth," said NASA as quoted of Inverse on Wednesday, September 21, 2016.

If that's true there are 13 zodiac, let's check the changes of horoscopes:
Zodiac signs. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1eAyZF)
After that, whether the zodiac changes had an impact on your real life today? If not, why should responded it seriously.. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | INVERSE]
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Saturday, September 17, 2016

An Earth-sized Diamond revealed the mystery of our sun future

We all already know that diamonds are rare on Earth, but very abundant in the universe. One of them was a giant chunk of the estimated weighing reach 10 billion trillion trillion carats (the numeral one followed by 34 zeros), which is in the constellation Centaurus.

The researchers team of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Massachusetts which has long found its existence, calling it a mass of crystallized carbon. Then the astronomers decided to give the name of 'Lucy', the idea was taken from a Beatles song titled 'Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds.'
An Earth-sized diamond has been discovered by astronomers and providing proof our own Sun will one day also become a planet sized gemstone. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1e0wZ0)
It actually was a white dwarf from a star named BPM 37093, which has the size of the Sun that later die due to run out of fuel to sustain its nuclear reactions. The white dwarf is considered as the end point of the evolution of stars and the cores of stars where the fusion reaction takes place. Or in other words, the final form after the star burned out aka died. And white dwarfs comprise the majority of carbon. 
The scientists found that a white dwarf near the constellation Centaurus, BPM 37093, was made of crystallized carbon weighing 10 billion trillion trillion carats. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1e0wcT)
Those white dwarf is still hot and pulsates, but over time the carbon to crystallize into a diamond. What is remarkable, the white dwarf is also ring like a gigantic gong, which allows the team of scientists to measure and investigate it.

"By measuring the pulse, we can study the interior of which is hidden from the white dwarf, just like seismograph measurements allow experts geologists study the interior of the Earth," said a leading astronomer Travis Metcalfe, as quoted by the Daily Express on Friday, September 9, 2016.
A white dwarf remains hot and pulsates but over time the carbon crystalises into diamond. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1e0wZ0)
"We know that the carbon interior of the white dwarf has solidified and formed in the galaxy's largest diamond," he said.

In the future, the Sun is expected to be about the size of the white dwarf BPM 37093, after the Sun died is about 5 billion years from now. About two billion years later, the core of the Sun will be crystallized, making it becoming a giant diamond in the center of the Solar System. "Sun will become adiamond - immortal," said Metcalfe.

Previously, scientists also ever found another chunk of diamond in space, named PSR J2222-0137, which is located somewhere near the constellation Aquarius which has a distance of 900 light years from Earth.

The bodies of these faint stars is so cold, that makes all the carbon crystallizes. Or effectively form an Earth-sized giant diamond. "It is a remarkable object," said the study leader David Kaplan, a professor of University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee in a statement issued by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), as quoted of SPACE. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | DAiLY EXPRESS | SPACE.COM]
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Sunday, September 4, 2016

Mysterious signals emanating from space

A surge radio signals coming from a Sun-like star has attracted the attention of astronomers. The signal is thought to have come from a star called HD 164595 in the constellation of Hercules, which is about 95 light years from the Earth.

Scientists estimate the signal is the result of natural phenomena such as microlensing, in which the star's gravity becomes stronger and focusing the signals elsewhere.
The signals seem to be coming from a sun-like star known as HD 164595 in the constellation Hercules, around 95 light years away. Pictured is an artist's impression of an alien star system. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1da2SW)
However, astronomers have also been asked for SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) for a closer look at whether the radio signals were a message from extraterrestrial beings.

As quoted by the Daily Mail on Tuesday, August 30, 2016, SETI track the HD 164595 using the Allen Telescope Array in northern California and Boquete Optical SETI Observatory, in Panama.
Scientists suggest the spike (pictured) may be the result of a natural phenomenon, such as 'microlensing', in which the star's gravity strengthens and focus signals from farther away. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1da2SW)
According to the explanation by Paul Gilster in Centauri Dreams, the signal was first detected on May 15, 2015 by the RATAN-600 radio telescope in Zelenchukskaya, Russia.

HD 164595 attract the attention of scientists because it is like the sun, at least has one Neptune-sized warm planet known orbiting. But they said it was likely there are other planets that have not been detected. The average temperature of HD 164595 is 12 Kelvin hotter and aged 100 million years younger than the Sun.

"No one is claiming that's an act of the extraterrestrial civilization, but it deserves to be studied further," said Gilster.

"The researchers said that, if it comes from an isotropic flare, is likely only come from Type II Kardashev civilization."
A spike in radio signals coming from the direction of a sun-like star, HD 164595, is being followed up by alien-hunting telescopes. SETI is using the Allen Telescope Array (pictured) in northern California and the Boquete Optical SETI Observatory in Panama to confirm the data. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1da2SW)
"(But) if it is a narrow signal that focuses on our solar system, the possibility of a power available to Type I Kardashev civilization," he added.

Kardashev scale is a way to measure the technological sophistication of an alien civilization is based on the energy used. According to the makers of the scale, Nikolai Kardashev, there are three types of the alien civilizations.

Type I civilization consists of species that are able to utilize all the available energy of the nearest star, collect, and store it to meet the needs of its population. And Type II civilization much more advanced and can utilize all their star power. While the civilization of type III, a species that has been able to control everything related to energy.

Paul Gilster of the Tau Zero Foundation, which conducts research interstellar say, if the signal was artificial, then it could be derived from a more advanced civilization than human - or is in Kardashev scale entry into the Type II.

Currently, humans are around Type I - where civilization is able to utilize all the available energy, including solar, wind, earthquakes, and other fuels. Meanwhile, Type II has been able to utilize the whole of the energy emitted by the star, which powers billions of watts.

In a statement, Seth Shostak, the SETI Institute's senior astronomer claimed to have no clue where the civilization that seeks to give the 'messages' to us. "It is difficult to understand why someone would want to target our solar system with a strong signal," he said further, as quoted by CNN.

"It's a little confusing, because Russia has found this signals a year ago, but do not let other people know," said a senior astronomer at the SETI Institute.

"The signal may be genuine, but I suspect that it is not extraterrestrial beings. There is another possibility that such a broad signal caused by the natural disruption (or even terrestrial interference)."

Researchers who found the signal at the Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Science said that required further observations to HD 164595. The discovery of the signal will be discussed at the International Astronautical Congress held in Mexico in September 2016. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | DAILY MAIL]
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Friday, September 2, 2016

It has been found the closest habitable planet to the Earth

A new world can be inhabited by humans in the future might be located just across of our homes from the perspective of astronomy. A team of astronomers, through a publication in the Nature journal on Wednesday, August 24, 2016, revealed that Proxima Centauri, the nearest planetary system to our solar system, most likely have a habitable planet.
An illustration of Proxima b orbiting Proxima Centauri. The Proxima b is the closest known, potentially habitable planet. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1ddIcQ)
The new planet was named Proxima b. And the astronomers revealed its existence with detect the "wobble" of star when the planet passes, through a method known as radial velocity. The detection is performed with the instruments called High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS), which is located in the Atacama desert, Chile.
The HARPS instrument is attached to a 3.6m telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1ddHwd)
"We're talking about a planet that has similarities with the Earth," said Guillem Anglada Escude, an astronomer from Queen Mary University of London, who led the study.

Just like the Earth, Proxima b was a rocky planet. The Planet was also located in goldlilocks zone, ie a zone that was fitting to support the creation of precise temperature which allows the presence of water in liquid form. The planet estimated 1.3 times the size of Earth that are at a distance of approximately 7.5 million kilometers from its parent star.
An illustration of the sights of Proxima b surface and its parent star Proxima Centauri. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1ddHwd)
A year counted on this planet is very short, equivalent to 11.2 days on Earth. These short years occurred because the distance of planet with relatively nearby star. Compare with the Earth-Sun distance is about 149 million kilometers.

The proximity of distance to the star does not necessarily make the Proxima b like in a hell. It could be happened because of the Proxima Centauri was not as hot as the Sun. And the planet was classified as a red dwarf, and cooler.
How big is the Proxima Centauri? (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1ddHwd)
The distance from the Earth to Proxima Centauri itself is around 40 trillion kilometers. The distance that is very far, but in the perspective of astronomy is very close. Proxima Centauri can be likened to a complex across the street from us. These planetary system was the closest to Earth, even closer than the famous double star system Alpha Centauri.

"It's not just the nearest rocky planet, but the closest planet outside our solar system that ever found. Due to there's no planetary system that is closer to our solar system other than Proxima Centauri," said Escude.

With today's technology, we still need thousands of years to reach Proxima b. The life span of one generation alone is not enough.

"Obviously, to go there now is an impossible mission. However, we would think, not just in the imagination of scientists to send the spacecraft to go there," Escude said as quoted by the BBC on Thursday, August 25, 2016.
Location and distance of the Proxima Centauri? (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1ddHwd)
Not yet known whether the planet has an atmosphere like the Earth. However, Escude optimistic that in the next 10 years, whether or not the atmosphere existence at Proxima b will be found.

The existence of the atmosphere will determine whether the Proxima b really could be the our future home. Otherwise, the temperature at the planet's surface would be too cold for humans. And the sending of a special spacecraft to examine Proxima b can be done so that the characteristics of the planet more quickly revealed.

What happens if human live there? The experiences will be different than the Earth. When the planet has similar atmosphere with the Earth, so the color of twilight in there is similar to the dusk in late spring. However, the stars will be visible in the silent, not like the Sun. Why, because only one side of the planet facing the parent star.

Although there are still many questions, the astronomers welcomed these findings. "To know had the nearest star which has a potentially habitable planet was amazing," said Edward Guinan of Villanova University. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | BBC]
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Friday, August 26, 2016

NASA's spacecraft ready to encounter the asteroid Bennu

Researchers at the US space agency - National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is mounting the last series of spacecraft to study the asteroid Bennu in 2018 in order to get the clues about the origin of life.

"A few more days, the installation of rocket parts finished and we will bring the spacecraft to the Atlas V to begin the journey to Bennu and returned to Earth," said Dante Lauretta, principal investigator for the event, at the Kennedy Space Center, Cape Kanveral, United States.
NASA's OSIRIS-Rex mission will map and study the asteroid Bennu before bringing a sample home. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dOm1o)
The activity worth one billion US dollars, it is known by the OSIRIS-REx, and the rocket is scheduled to launch on September 8, 2016 from the Cape Kanaveral in Florida.

The solar-powered robotic rocket, made by Lockheed Martin, and designed to deal with asteroid 1999 RQ36, known as Bennu, for two years for mapping and research. Later, the rocket's robotic arm was used to obtain a sample for examination when it back to Earth in 2023.

Researchers are interested in studying the mineral and chemical materials in asteroids. Because they argued similar asteroids ever hit the Earth and is believed to contain organic material and water that allows life.

"We hope to find the material that preceded the age of the solar system at this time," said Lauretta. He added, the physical samples from the Apollo missions to the Moon in the 1960s and 1970s are still widely used today.

"By understanding the chemical elements down to the molecular level, we have to get more samples and bring them to the best laboratories in the country and around the world for the next generation of knowledge," said Jason Dworkin, one of the mission researchers.
NASA's OSIRIS-Rex mission will spend 2 years mapping an asteroid before returning a sample to Earth. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dOm1o)
Meanwhile, Hayabusa is the first Japanese spacecraft that managed to bring back physical samples of the asteroid to Earth in 2010. Along with sample devices, the Osiris-Rex rocket is also equipped with cameras and sensors, in order to learn the power that influence the direction of the asteroid's orbit.

However, the rocket launch plan for the right to deal with Bennu quite difficult because the prediction calculation is not a perfect science, Lauretta said.

"In fact many unanticipated challenges, such as other power such as solar radiation pressure, even heat emission from the asteroid may affect the movement of the rocket," said Lauretta.

That mission will provide new insight for astronomers to determine the influence of the Sun's heat on the movement of rock in space, said Dworkin.

That information is important to know in order to protect the Earth from asteroids that might hit the planet in the future, he added. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | SPACE]
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Thursday, August 25, 2016

The mysterious object found in the Solar System

A mysterious object found in the Solar System. Until now, nobody knew its identity. The object named Niku. Scientists initially suspected that the object was a dwarf planet, entered in the class of trans-Neptunian objects.

However, during the analyzes, scientists are even more confused. Normally, the object of which is smaller than the planet can be called a dwarf planet or even an asteroid. However, Niku could not be classified in both.
This is an artist's concept of a craggy piece of Solar System debris that belongs to a class of bodies called trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with nickname Niku. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dNT34)
For the first, Niku has a different orbital plane 110 degrees compared to the orbital plane of the other celestial objects that orbit the sun. Even odder, Niku orbit direction opposite the direction of the orbit most celestial bodies in the Solar System. When the other celestial bodies orbiting the Sun in the direction of rotation, Niku is precisely the opposite.

Indeed, Niku is not the only one who has the opposite or retrograde orbit. However, due to differences combined with its orbital plane, it is difficult for astronomers claimed that Niku is a dwarf planet.
There's an unidentified object in a strange orbit past Neptune named Niku, and no one can explain it. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dNSny)
Then, whether Niku is? One of the alleged, Niku is created from the collisions with other mysterious celestial bodies and influenced by other forces outside the Sun or planets in the Solar System.

Another hypothesis, Niku is a member of a group of celestial bodies that orbit coincidentally similar to the Solar System.

There are also allegations that the Niku is celestial objects associated with the presence of all nine planets in the solar system is suspected, but unconfirmed yet.

Which is correct? Until now scientists have not been able to confirm. However, the uncertainty that provides new passion for astronomers. They are encouraged to investigate further.

"It shows that there are many things in the outer Solar System were not yet fully understand," said Matthew Holman of the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics who discovered Niku, as quoted by Science Alert on August 11, 2016.

"Whenever you find oddities in the outer Solar System, it's interesting because in some ways is a sign of a new development," said Konstantin Batygin of Calfornia Institute of Technology.

Niku discovered by the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS 1) on Haleakala, Maui. This object 160,000 fainter than Neptune. Allegedly, its diameter was less than 200 kilometers alias less than half the width of the island of Java.. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | SCIENCE ALERT]
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Saturday, August 20, 2016

Is the 'Fifth force' of nature been found?

For decades, people knew of the existence of four of the fundamental forces (elements that make the universe survive, namely: gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear forces, both weak and strong, that uniting atoms).

And now scientists may have discovered the fifth force (which may answer the big question of physicists related to what particle actually works behind the veil of dark matter mystery.
Galaxies such as this spiral, known as NGC 6814, are held together by mysterious dark matter. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dG5X4)
Dark matter is an invisible material, not identified, and not detected as well, which is believed to be the majority materials which formed the universe (about 85 percent). It formed when the universe was created billions of years ago, in a massive explosion known as Big Bang.

Because it is not absorb or emit the light, so that the existence of dark matter can not be proven directly. It's called 'dark' but not as scary, but it is not yet within reach of human knowledge today.

"If true, this is a revolutionary findings," said the study author, Jonathan Feng, a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of California, Irvine, as quoted of LiveScience on Wednesday, August 17, 2016.

"If confirmed in further studies, the findings related to possibility of the fifth force will change our understanding of the universe, with the consequence is merger between the four powers (known previously) with the dark matter."

Feng and his colleagues analyzed data collected recently, and used by physics experiments at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, which is trying to find the 'dark photon' (a hypothetical indicator of the existence of mysterious dark matter).

Experts in Hungary detect interesting evidence of subatomic particles that were previously unknown, which is 30 times heavier than electrons and believed to be a 'dark photons'.

"The experiment can not be claimed that it is a new force," said Feng. "Experts only see the excesses of events that indicate a new particle, but it is not clear to them whether it is a particle of matter or force carrying the particles."

A new study conducted Feng and his team showed that found by the scientists in Hungary is not the 'dark photon' but 'protophobic X boson' (a strange particles whose existence could indicate the fifth force in the universe).

The electromagnetic force impacted on protons and electrons, but it turned out new particles interact only with protons and neutrons, within very short intervals.

"There's no other bosons which have been observed, and have similar characteristics," said another writer, Timothy Tait, who is also a professor of physics and astronomy at UC-Irvine. "Sometimes we refer to it as 'X boson', 'X' means unknown.
Illustration of a table of four forces of nature. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dG58h)
Fifth forces may be associated with electromagnetic and nuclear forces (strong or weak), as 'a manifestation of a larger force and fundamental'," said Feng. He added that the 'normal' material and the power of the universe has a parallel 'dark' sector (which has the material and power its own).

"There is a possibility that these two sectors 'talk' to each other and interact with each other through interaction somewhat veiled but fundamental," said Feng.

"This dark sector can manifest itself as a protophobic force (which we see as a result of the Hungary experiment). In a broader sense, it fits with research that aims to understand the nature of dark matter."

Although that's interesting speculation, but the researchers emphasize it was the beginning of a new interpretation. Further researche and experimentations are needed to strengthen the hypothesis. Such particles should also be observed in accelerators.

The good news, says Feng, many scientists were able to follow up on these findings. "Because of these new particles were so light, there are many groups working in small laboratory experiments around the world to follow up the initial claims. And now they know where to look," said Feng. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE]
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Wednesday, July 27, 2016

What would happens if the Comet Swift-Tuttle hit Our Earth?

The shooting star might be the thing that you admire as a kid, but the sky phenomenon has also become a strong warning that the Earth is not alone in the space, and the number of the space objects could become a hazard.
An artist illustration, the comet collision to the Earth. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1cblBO)
In 1973, based on the orbit calculation of the object using limited observations, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics named Brian Marsden predicted that the Swift-Tuttle comet will hit the Earth in the year of 2126. However, these dire predictions ultimately did not happen, but what if the comet really hit the Earth?

"We must make it clear that it will not happen," said Donald Yeomans, a senior researcher at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and author of "Near-Earth Objects: Finding Them Before They Find Us" (Princeton University Press, 2012), as told to Live Science.

When the comet was last seen in 1992, Yeomans was making revisions models of comet movement, making complicated calculations to measure the gravitational effects of the sun and planets on the object space rocks.

Of sightings in 1992, plus the data from 1862 and 1737, showed that astronomers have enough information to find the possibility of a collision in 2126. Keep in mind, Comet Swift-Tuttle instead of the usual space rock.
Such as the Perseid meteor shower, which appeared annual in mid-August occurs when the Earth passed by a trail of debris left by comet Swift-Tuttle. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1cbkRN)
Comet Swift-Tuttle is the greatest objects that cross the Earth, said Yeomans. The object is within 16 miles, and across the Earth every 130 years, and moving at a speed of 36 miles per second or 56 km/s.
The Comet Swift-Tuttle, the comet was discovered by Lewis Swift on July 16 and then a few days later by Horace Parnell Tuttle on July 19, 1862. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1cblBO)
If the comet crashing into planet, the impact energy was approximately 300 times of the asteroid hit the Earth, causing the destruction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. "That would be the worst days for the Earth," he said further.

But the size of the comets or asteroids not be the only thing responsible for cosmic collisions, said Gerta Keller, a geographers at the Princeton University.

The fall of the comet to land or sea may cause destruction in the surrounding area, but the real devastation comes from the gas in the stratosphere, part of the Earth's atmosphere where the ozone layer is located. Sulfur dioxide causes cooling, heat and carbon dioxide causes long term heating, added Keller. This led to drastic climate change and brings mass extinction worldwide.

Keller also explained that most of the Earth  is ocean. Effects caused able to impact on the deep sea, such as the eruption of underwater volcanoes.

Based on the Scientists calculation, the arrival of the comet Swift-Tuttle to the Earth on August 5, 2126, within a distance of 14 million miles, equivalent to 60 times the distance of Earth to the Moon. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE]
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Monday, July 11, 2016

Researchers find the new 'Dark Vortex' in the Neptune

More recently, astronomers claim to have found the black spot or more often called dark vortex at the Neptune. According to experts, the black vortex is a high pressure system, which is usually accompanied by a cloud 'companion', high above the planet's surface.

A new picture of the appearance is obtained on May 16, 2016, by the Hubble Space Telescope, to confirm the existence of the dark vortex in the atmosphere of Neptune.
The 'dark vortex' is a high pressure system, and experts say on Neptune it is usually accompanied by 'companion clouds' high above the planet's surface. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1blnjW)
According to a report quoted by the Daily Mail on Friday, June 24, 2016, even though the same features seen ever found during the Voyager 2 trip that crosses Neptune in 1994, the discovery of 'dark vortex' is the first in the 21st century. The discovery was announced on May 17, 2016 at the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT) by Mike Wong, an astronomer from the University of California, Berkeley.

Mike analyzing data from Hubble found that the dark vortex of Neptune is a high-pressure system that is usually accompanied by a cloud of light and can be seen from outside the planet. The bright cloud is formed when the flow is circling in the sky above distracted and diverted to the dark vortex, causing freezing into ice crystals of methane gas.

"The dark vortex spread through the atmosphere like a mountain of gas lenses are great. And the cloud 'companion' which is similar to orogafis clouds appear, (pancake) shaped bending mountains circling the Earth," said Mike.
By viewing the vortex a second time, the new Hubble images confirm that OPAL really detected a long-lived feature. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1blnjW)
Started in July 2015, a bright cloud again seen in Neptune by some observers, ranging from amateur observers to astronomers at the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii.

Astronomers suspect that the cloud is a cloud of light that surrounds the black vortex. Interestingly, the dark vortex of Neptune is only seen along the blue waves, and only Hubble has a high resolution to be able to see the phenomenon.

In September 2015, an annual project of Hubble, Outer Planet Atmosphere Legacy (OPAL), that captures the global map outer planet. And the map reveals a dark location, situated near the bright cloud.

The data obtained from the Hubble, allowing researchers to create a map with high quality, from the dark vortex and its surroundings. The dark vortex of Neptune provides many 'surprises' during the last few years. Starting from the shape, size, and stability - which sometimes crosswise and tortuous.

The vortex also appears in a shorter period of time, compared with the similar anticyclones are seen in Jupiter. The planetary astronomers hope to get a 'bright light' of how the black vortex is formed, originates, and how the vortex interacts with the environment.

"We were intrigued by the mysterious vortex every movement. How can he disappeared quickly," said Joshua Tollefson, NASA Earth award recipient to study the atmosphere of Neptune. Measuring the evolution of dark vortex that will expand knowledge about the black vortex itself and dynamics of the atmosphere around it. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | DAILY MAIL]
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