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Wednesday, January 20, 2016

The mystery behind the Mammoth extinction

The first person to reach the North Pole is Robert Peary, a US explorer in 1900. Or perhaps, Frederick Cook, in 1908. The historians are still not sure which of the two of them who first set foot on it. However, it is a story that fits to the discovery in the Arctic, corner of the world where ambiguity dominate. In fact, there is no formal consensus on where was the Arctic.

Technically, Arctic referring to anything above the Arctic Circle, which has a latitude of 66 degrees, 32 minutes North. The definition of the United States, the region covers all of the Bering Sea (which stretches as far south as 53 degrees).
A mammoth, a spear, and a new timeline for Humans in the Arctic. (Picture from: http://theatln.tc/239fAd9)
While some scientists describe the Arctic using the Arctic tree line or the average temperature to draw their boundaries. And many research stations in this region was built on sheets of sea ice, drifting and do not have a fixed location. Therefore, it is difficult to determine as to when humans arrived in the Arctic.
The body of the mammoth, which was found in 2012 in the Siberian coast Yensei Bay. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/208VcXg)
However, in a new paper published in Science, a team of Russian researchers noted that human had occupied the area since 45,000 years ago, a few thousand years earlier than previously archaeologists study.

But their discovery is not based on arguments about the frozen mummies, or any man-made objects. Instead, it was the discovery of the body of the mammoth, which was found in 2012 in the Siberian coast Yensei Bay.

The researchers were able to determine the bone age. And hairy elephant deaths occurred in 45,000 years ago. The discovery was supported by analysis of branches, peat moss, and other natural ingredients found around and on top of the body. Based on that, the giant, obviously in good health when it died.

Of the dental examination stating that it was about 15 years old at the time of its death, while a large amount of fat in punuknya (many soft tissues remain intact) shows that the mammoth was healthy. So what led to its death and the flock extinct?

The researchers said, of its death, it appears that it is caused by a sharp weapon can only be made by humans. A small sign, symmetrical holes in the skull suggests that the giant had been pierced by a spear, as it found any fault on the leg and shoulder bones.

Further analysis revealed that the injury occurred before the death of the animal. Bone fragments have also been stripped trunk, which makes experts speculate may be a way to kill the animal by cutting up the trunk with a sharp instrument. The giant die slowly.

To make support their findings, the researchers also mention the new discovery of carcasses of wolves from separate locations in the Siberian Arctic. An analysis of the bones of wolves that live in the same time period as the mammoth.

X-rays found a sign on one of the leg bones of the wolf is the "result of a penetrating injury inflicted by a sharp weapon." Bone also showed signs of healing, indicating that wolves survived the injury and eliminate the possibility of injuries that occurred after the death of the animal.

"These two incidents show that even during the phase of the time period between 3,000 and 57,000 years ago, humans have inhabited the Arctic that is wide enough, although the total population may be small and rarely settling for a long time," the researchers wrote as reported by The Atlantic, on Saturday, January 15, 2016.

This is the second time in the first decade of Siberian discovery have made archaeologists to think there was anything in the region. In 2004, a team headed by Vladmir Pitulko, found the 31,000-year-old hunting tools along the Yana River in central Siberia, pushing back the evidence of human presence has been there about 15,000 years.

"Actualy the extent of the Arctic that makes we think that the region would not be a human being can live. However, from the death of those pole animals turns the other said. Humans have lived in the region, and possibly, they're one of the causes of mammoth extinction. It could be." The researchers lid. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | THE ATLANTIC]
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