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Friday, June 6, 2014

Scientists design an elevator to outer space

In the future, when we wanted to go into space and not have to use the rocket plane. Can also use an elevator or lift. The first concept has even been imagined long ago, by Russian scientist, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in 1895.
In 2012, Tokyo-based company Obayashi Corporation announced plans to build an operational space elevator by 2050, concept image pictured. It uses similar technology proposed by Debney, and seen in supertall buildings. (Picture from: http://dailym.ai/SvURQD)
In principle, sounds simple - extend tether from Earth's surface into space. However, in practice, it is hard. Therefore, it takes a lot of superstrength material and can be produced in large quantities to make an extremely long cables.

Gothic cathedrals, such as
the Ulm Minster in Germany, 
pictured, with soaring spires
are built with a low centre of
gravity to keep them upright.  
(Picture from: http://dailym.ai/SvURQD)
The second barrier, mooring ropes must be in orbit geostrasioner is located just above the Earth's equator (0° latitude), with orbital eccentricity equal to zero. It should also be attached to a counterweight that extends far into outer space - to make sure it does not break up and keep the system in balance.

Now, engineer Peter Debney proposed a theory to realize the idea. Taking inspiration from the Gothic cathedral buildings, like those in Ulm Minster, Germany. Gothic cathedral with spire and the beauty of its structure, which used to be one of the architectural wonders, has now become the inspiration for defying the laws of gravity. When constructing high buildings, from Gothic cathedrals to skyscrapers, and finally space elevators, the robustness and the balance coming from its center of gravity.

In humans, for example, the center of gravity located in the abdomen. The higher the center located on the ground more difficult to balance. Conversely, if the lower the center of gravity is made, the easier it is to balance it and make a more sturdy footrest. The same theory has been applied to all the tall buildings. By creating a strong foundation and deepened.

"The gravity we experience on the surface of the Earth is the result of two components," said a structure expert, Peter Debney as quoted of the Daily Mail, on Tuesday, June 3, 2014 "The first is our distance from the center of the Earth - the center of gravity."
Engineer Peter Debney proposes a system that uses these principles to create a space elevator. Firms could lower a cable from a satellite in geostationary orbit. A counterweight would balance the system, pictured. The cable would taper, to adjust the centre of mass and it would sit on the Equator, to minimise the gravitational pull. (Picture from: http://dailym.ai/SvURQD)
Because the shape of the Earth as there is not a ball, rotation of the Earth is made midline polar hemisphere is smaller than at the equator. Or in other words, the radius of the Earth at the equator is larger than the poles. "Therefore, the gravitational force is smaller at a maximum at the equator and the North Pole and the South," he explained.

Not only that, Debney explained, because the earth rotates, the centrifugal force created maximum at the equator and zero at the poles. "Combining these two effects simultaneously then, the smaller the effective gravitational acceleration at the equator and maximum at the poles."

"If the centrifugal force of the Earth's rotation offset the force of gravity, what happens if you are in the higher building?" Debney said. "The first effect is the reduced gravity because you are away from the center of gravity, while the centrifugal force increases."

At one point the centrifugal force will negate the effects of gravity. "If you're at the equator, this occurs at an altitude of about 18,000 km," said Debney. The altitude is known as a geostationary orbit. "If you reposition the satellite at an altitude above the equator, by adjusting the speed, then it will orbit in a 24-hour period and will be settled on the spot."

What to do with a plan to make a space elevator? Debney said the solution he offers is to put a satellite in geostationary orbit, stalling the cable from there to the surface of the Earth. However, he continued, as soon as the cable is lowered, it will change the satellite's center of gravity, pulling it into a lower orbit, making it move relative to the Earth's surface.

To keep things in orbit, Debney adds, cables must also be extended at the same time, to keep the system in balance. Due to the nonlinear, cables need to lengthen upward almost double the length to come down to Earth.

Another alternative is to use a balancer, such as asteroids whose size is adapted to be placed outside the geostationary to be counterbalanced and store excess cable length. The cable also needs to made of materials that can withstand its own weight, such as graphene or carbon nanotubes.

Graphene has a super strength, 20 times stronger than diamond, 200 times stronger than steel, but six times lighter. The material has a breaking length - the weight of its own strength in the vertical condition - the length of 3,568 kilometers. But since breaking length assumes a constant force of gravity, in a height of 18 thousand kilometers force of gravity will be reduced, which means the length of the cable can be added.

Debney continued, need a space elevator cable is tapered. Like the pyramids of the cathedral towers taper to efficiently support the weight - the cable will be more tapered toward the Earth. "However, we can be sure the initial version of the space elevator will not reach the ground, but from a low orbit to a higher orbit," he said.

Meanwhile, the width of the ribbon cable will minimize the risk of accidental damage when installing the lift, including as a result of space debris and micro-meteorites. Meanwhile, the potential collapse of the cable is also not much to worry about.

So when the elevator into space will be realized. In 2012, Obayashi Corporation, based in Tokyo announced plans to build and will be operated in 2050. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | DAILY MAIL]
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