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Friday, July 15, 2011

Launch and Orbital Satellite Communication

Basically, the satellite is any object that revolves around a planet in a circular or elliptical shape. There is a natural satellite (natural satellite), which is a relatively small natural objects around a planet. The Moon is Earth's natural satellite.

Artificial satellite (artificial satellite) is an unmanned spacecraft man-made, which was launched at a certain height to orbit around a planet and carry out certain missions. Artificial satellites are used for various purposes. There is a weather satellite in charge of watching the rain, storms, clouds also measure the temperature of land and sea. Spy satellites used for spying on military targets from low altitude, then sends the images to earth. Satellite observations to monitor changes in population, population, as well as geological factors. There is also satellite communications function is to provide service radio, television, and telecommunications on Earth.

Launching satellites into orbit using a rocket and launch the principle used is usually a rocket stages. Gradually, every rocket ignited and thrown. At first when the fuel from the booster rocket's first stage has been exhausted, the rocket is removed first and second stage rocket ignited. The second rocket is moving faster than the rocket's first stage, because the initial velocity of the second rocket at the speed of the end of the first rocket. Similarly, the third rocket, faster than the second rocket, and so on.

By the time the rocket has reached a layer of air (atmosphere) is very thin, approximately 193 kilometers in altitude navigation system rocket lit small rockets. Rockets are used to fly a satellite launcher vehicle in a horizontal position, as well as the preparation phase of expenditure / release of the satellite.

One rocket should have a minimum speed of 11.2 kilometers per second or 40,320 kilometers per hour, in order to escape Earth's gravity and slid into the sky. This speed is called escape velocity (escape velocity).

Escape velocity from the earth, must be greater than the required speed when the release of a satellite in orbit.

Suitable orbit for communications satellites are geostationary orbit. Orbit lies in the field of equatorial and circular. The orbit altitude of about 35,786 kilometers above the earth. The satellite will appear stationary when positioned in the orbit.

In order satellites orbit at an altitude of 35,786 kilometers (22,223 miles) above Earth, the satellite must orbit at about 11,300 kilometers per hour (7,000 miles per hour). Distance and speed are made satellites have the ability to rotate for 24 hours, settling at an altitude of 35,785 kilometers, and relatively precisely located at a point above the earth's surface. Meanwhile, as much as possible so that the satellite's orbit remains circular, then the correction required direction by controlling a small rocket motor on the satellite by a ground control station .*** [HENDI WICAKSONO | PIKIRAN RAKYAT 07072011]
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