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Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Scientists managed to reveal the origin of HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS is still a scourge. Attention to the virus peaked in 1980, and until now has infected nearly 75 million people in the world. It has long been known, the virus has a longer history in Africa, however, where the pandemic originated is still a heated debate.
Kinshasa, pictured in 1955, was at the centre of the pandemic, scientists say. (Picture from: http://bbc.in/1nSWNS5)
To uncover the mystery, an international team trying to reconstruct the genetics of HIV. To find out where its oldest ancestors originated spreading on human. The findings in the virus archeology is used to find the origin of the pandemic. Similarly, the team reports in the journal Science. Experts using archival samples of HIV's genetic code to track the source. And in fact, the origin of pandemic traced from the 1920s in the city of Kinshasa is now part of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The spreading description of HIV virus, which began in Kinshasa in the early 1920s. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1t1j5BD)
Their report said, the sex trade is rampant, rapid population growth, and not sterile needles are used in clinics suspected of spreading the virus. Creating 'perfect storm' conditions. Meanwhile, the railroads were built with the support of Belgium - in which one million people across the city each year - carry the HIV virus to the surrounding area. Then on to the world.

The team of scientists from the University of Oxford and the University of Leuven, Belgium trying to reconstruct the 'family tree' of HIV and found the origins of the virus ancestor. "You can see the traces of history in today's genome - the recorded data, signs mutations in the HIV genome can not be removed," said Professor Oliver Pybus of the University of Oxford, told the BBC on Friday, October 3, 2014. By reading the signs of mutation the team could reconstruct a family tree and trace its roots.
HIV is a mutated version of the chimpanzee (pictured a Chimpanzee) virus, known as simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) - which might make the leap the species, to humans, through contact with infected blood. (Picture from: http://bbc.in/1nSWNS5)
HIV is a mutated version of the chimpanzee virus, known as simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) - which might make the leap the species, to humans, through contact with infected blood. This virus was first spread on the chimpanzees hunters when handling the animal meat. The first case was reported in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in 1930. The virus makes the jump on several occasions. One of them leads to HIV-1 subtype O is spread in Cameroon. Then, the HIV-1 subtypes M that infect millions of people worldwide.

In the 1920s, Kinshasa - formerly called Leopoldville until 1966 - was part of the Belgian Congo. "The city was very large and very fast growing. Medical records show a high incidence of the colonial era a number of sexually transmitted diseases," said Professor Oliver Pybus.

At that time, male workers flowing into the city, triggering a gender imbalance, with the male and female ratio of 2:1 - that triggered the rise of sex trafficking. Plus factor with disease treatment practices through non-sterile injections were effectively spread the virus.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system. (Picture from: http://bbc.in/1nSWNS5)
"Another interesting aspect is the transportation network that makes people move easily." Approximately 1 million people use the rail network of Kinshasa in the late 1940s. "And the virus was spread, first to the neighboring city of Brazzaville, and extends to a province area which ​​their economy is sustained on mining, Katanga. The 'perfect storm' conditions, only lasted for a few decades in Kinshasa. But when it ended, HIV is already spreading to the rest of the world.

Jonathan Ball of the University of Nottingham said, the findings was attractive because it provides a new insight into the early phase of the HIV-1 pandemic. "The suspect who made the virus to gain a foothold in humans - is transportation, the population increases, health practices, and prostitution," as he told the BBC. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | BBC]
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