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Monday, December 23, 2013

How was the HIV creates the AIDS?

Scientists have discovered that the HIV virus causes AIDS by destroying the immune system with a small number of infected cells and creates a way to consume the nearby cells. This discovery could lead to treatments that can reduce the activity of this deadly disease.

AIDS virus. (Picture from: http://www.voanews.com/)
Scientists have long known that HIV formed a kind of tiny biological factories inside  the body's protective CD-4 T cells, by generating millions copies that ultimately lead to massive destruction of the immune system. Until now, researchers have not been able to understand how the virus is so aggressive.

It turns out that HIV, which only a small number of T cells attack at first destroying about 95 percent of immune cells through a process known as a bystander effect. Warner Greene, head of the department of virology and immunology at the Gladstone Institutes in California, told the bystander cells that surround the cells of HIV-infected succumbed to the severe death.

"Most CD-4 T cells during HIV infection die not because of the toxic effects of the virus, but because of the immune response against the virus. So, CD-4 cell depletion is more of a suicide than a murder," said Greene.

Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have discovered that the bystander cells undergo massive inflammation, and release a protein called capcaisin-1 which recruits other immune system T cells to the site of infection to trying to put out the fire. But the new cells become inflamed and burned or shut itself down.

It turned out to be good news in the sense that inflammation can be quenched with existing drug compounds. Greene said the researchers have tested three agents in laboratories, including one that was developed to treat epilepsy. He said that the three-drug compound has been working well to overcome inflammation. The inflammation can cause heart disease and cancer in people with HIV at an early age.

Although the anti-inflammatory drugs can not cure AIDS virus, Greene says they can potentially dampen diseases encountered approximately 16 million people in the world who can not access antiretroviral drugs. Greene also envision the use of anti-inflammatory compounds in combination with anti-AIDS drugs. Warner Greene and his colleagues report their findings in the Nature and Science journals.. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | VOA NEWS]
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