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Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts

Tuesday, September 26, 2017

5 mysteries of lost history is finally revealed

Some events in the past sometimes make us think that it is impossible. However, those impossible events and only based on the story, at the end were successfully revealed by the experts and scientists today.

Maybe you wonder how those mysteries of history are lost? Here are some lost historical mysteries that have been revealed.

1. Lost Army of Cambyses II
In 524 BC, the Persian King named Cambyses II sent his troops to invade the Egypt. There are more than 50,000 soldiers deployed to conquer it. However, all of a sudden all the soldiers vanished without a trace and become a legend since then.
According to the scientists the legend army of Cambyses II to invade Egypt was wiped out and vanished by an enormous sandstorm in the desert. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2ynnvsi)
However, recently Angelo and Alfredo Castiglioni managed to find the remains of these legendary soldiers. This of course proves the hard work of these scientists for 13 years. Apparently, these soldiers not only disappeared, but they were killed in an enormous sandstorm.

2. Mysterious Bosham Head
The Bosham Head is one of the most debatable finds and turn out identifiable by using modern technology. Before, the Bosham Head was unnamed for more than two centuries because of its terrible condition.
Before the hi-tech study, little was known about the eroded 170 kg stone (left), which is twice as large as a human head, including who it was meant to depict. However,  now archaeologists believe it is the head of a statue of Emperor Trajan. A more complete and less weather-beaten bust is pictured right. (Picture from: http://dailym.ai/2wQKawg)
Recently, by using laser scanners have helped the scientists identify these 170-kilogram stone as one of the great statues of the Roman Emperor Trajan. And now, the statue is a tourist attraction in the port of Chichester and these Bosham head itself becomes one of the most important Roman heritage in Britain.

3. Mystery Of Death Valley's Walking Stones
It had been appalled the social media after the news of this walking stones appeared to the public. Everyone who sees the rocks in Death Valley, California whether in person or via the interwebs, have noticed a strange phenomenon that takes place with some of the Valley’s rocks- they seem to be moving across the valley floor.
The rocks in Racetrack Playa move slowly enough that you can’t see the movement happening, about 15 feet per minute, but the fact that they are actually moving is reconfirmed by the trails left behind in their wake. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2fkWfU7)
There was no explanation of the phenomenon until Richard and James Norris proved that there was ice cubes formed around these stone in the winter. And when it melts, the rocks seemly begin to shift due to the wind blow.
Now, thanks to a lucky discovery made December 2014 by Richard and James Norris, we finally have an answer- weather phenomenon that surprisingly has much more in common with an arctic climate than a desert. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2fkWfU7)

4. Mystery of Mary Celeste
Mary Celeste is a fairly famous ghost ship and was discovered in 1872 with no trace of crew nor any damage to the ship. Until a chemist named Dr. Andrea Sella did an experiment that could explain the phenomenon.
An 1861 painting of Mary Celeste (named Amazon at the time), by an unknown artist. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2xEPruV)
Noted there are about 1700 barrels of alcohol carried by the ship that could be easily make explosions and burns in the form a wall of fire when followed by a wave of cold air which not to leave a fire or soot. The crew can leave the ship and then die in the ocean.

5. Helicopter of Ancient Egyptian
The Abydos hieroglyphs in the temple of Osiris led to some discussions because of there were alleged symbols of helicopters, tanks, even a jet. There are many theories about the secret knowledge of the Ancient Egyptians.
The Abydos-Hieroglyph does not depict a Helicopter, Tank, or Jet. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/2xCYADX)
However, scientists managed to restore the original hieroglyphic symbols and prove that the helicopter and other symbols are mere manipulations by time. Apparently, our brain was deceives us to see the familiar forms in it. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES |]
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Tuesday, January 17, 2017

Turned out the Moon was 4.51 billion years old

According to scientists, it turns out the moon was older than previously thought, which is 4.51 billion years old. Thus the latest estimates, thanks to the rocks and soil samples collected by the astronauts of Apollo 14 on the moon.
The study has put the age of the Moon at at least 4.51 billion years — up to 140 million years older than previously thought, according to a new study of minerals called zircons brought back from the lunar body to the Earth by the Apollo 14 mission in 1971. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1iDSow)
A team of researchers reported on Wednesday, January 11, 2017 that the moon formed within 60 million years of the birth of the solar system. The estimates range from 100 million the previous year, then to 200 million years after the creation of the solar system, instead of the 4.6 billion years ago.

Scientists are calculating the age of the moon by using the uranium-lead zircon metal fragments were extracted from samples of moon taken from the Apollo 14 missions. The pieces of zircon was very small, no bigger than a grain of sand.

"Size does not matter, because the fragments record an incredible information!" said the study's lead author Melanie Barboni from the University of California, Los Angeles. She added that the moon has "so many wonders key to understanding how our beautiful Earth formed and evolved."

Some of the eight samples of zircon has been used in a previous study, also conducted at UCLA. Barboni said that she was learning more zircon samples from the Apollo 14, but she expects it will not change the estimated age of the moon is around 4.51 billion year, at most only be 4.52 billion years old.
This is astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. on the moon in 1971 with the Apollo 14 mission. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1iDSJF)
As we lall knew, the Apollo 14 astronauts, Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell collected approximately 41.73 kilograms and uses tubes to dig the ground while exploring the Fra Mauro highlands in February 1971. They walk twice on the moon, as a whole for nine hours on the lunar surface.

And this is the second major study of the moon on this week. Earlier, on Monday, Israeli scientists concluded that the moon may have formed from many mini moons. The moon, according to them, are not formed from the massive giant power hit and release the body parts of the Earth, but from a series of smaller collision may have created many moons eventually merge into one.

This giant force theory says that the result of the blow energy forming the moon lava ocean later becomes solid. This solidification age which is now confirmed by the Barboni and her team.

Barboni said like any process of formation of the moon, the result is the compaction of the moon as it is known today. "We finally determine the minimum age of the formation of the moon, however the process," she said. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | SCIENCEDAILY]
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Monday, January 16, 2017

It turned out that dinosaurs became extinct because of the length of time hatching

The asteroid is not the only factor causing the extinction of dinosaurs 66 million years ago. Researchers also found that the length of time the hatching eggs are also influence at the extinction of the dinosaurs.

Recent research revealed that the dinosaur eggs take at least 6 months to hatch, much longer than previously thought that only 11-85 days. And according to a researcher from Florida State University named Gregory Erickson who studied two species of dinosaur, Protoceratops (dinosaur at the size of a sheep), as well as Hypacrosaurus (a big duck dinosaur).
(Pictured: Protoceratops andrewsi). Study reveals dinosaurs spent way longer in the egg than previously thought. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1i9Tf8)
After scanning the jaws with CT Scan, the team extracted some teeth and analyze them with a high-resolution microscope. By using this technique allowing the researchers to identify the von Ebner lines, the growth lines owned by all animals.

"This is the development line of animals dental. Such a circle of trees. We can use this line to see the level of development of the dinosaur," Erickson said, as quoted of the Science Alert on January 3, 2017.

When analyzing, Erickson and his colleagues found that embryos of Protoceratops was 3 months old while Hypacrosaurus nearly 6 months.

"This means that dinosaurs had a slow progression. Three to six months allows the eggs are exposed to many risks, predators, drought and floods. Parent was potentially exposed to many risks," said Erickson.

The risk factors are more greater in extreme conditions, such as when the asteroid impact occurred. Under extreme conditions, the length of time hatching will increasingly hamper reproduction, thereby reducing survival.

In other words, the length of time hatching and catastrophic asteroid impact events is a combination that creates the extinction of the dinosaurs. This research was a preliminary study. And further research is needed to reveal whether other non avian dinosaurs are also experiencing a slow incubation period. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | SCIENCE ALERT]
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Wednesday, January 11, 2017

Quantum particles to fight Superbugs

Scientists have created an antibiotic to kill the bacteria off since almost 80 years. Unfortunately, the bacteria can multiply rapidly, and most evolved into a superbug that is invulnerable to all antibiotics, while making new drugs is a long and expensive process.

Therefore, the scientists at Biofrontiers Institute of University of Colorado learn how to make drugs that are not based on biology. They developed an "antibiotic" that can be updated via computer.
Ultraviolet light reveals different "species" of quantum dots that have been programmed to attack specific microbes. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1hqKZr)
In an advanced laboratory at the University of Colorado, scientists Anushree Chatterjee wearing safety glasses and gloves when examining petri dishes containing some most dangerous microbes in the world. They are superbug cause of the disease is difficult to overcome with traditional antibiotic drugs.

"They are immune, in some cases, on more than 20 kinds of antibiotics. They can even live in an environment of antibiotics is high enough. They not only survive but also thrive with antibiotics," said Chatterjee.

It took many years to develop traditional biology-based antibiotics to fight them. Husband and Chatterjee's colleagues, Prashant Nagpal, said that in the meantime, scientists are losing the fight against superbugs. But he had an idea.
Chemical engineer Anushree Chatterjee shows one of the Petri dishes holding dangerous superbugs.. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1hqKZr)
"We want to develop a system that can adapt, if not sooner, at least at the same level with microbes," explains Nagpal.

To achieve this goal, in the laboratory Nagpal analyzed superbug DNA, then create a special antibiotic, in just a few days. He does this by creating an "antibiotic" of particles of very small semiconductors known as "quantum dots."

"(Every time we discuss about semiconductors,) we always think, oh, that objects in the camera, or on the roof. We show here, is that we can use the same semiconductor, stripping it and put it into the cells," he explained,

In each "quantum dots" size is 20,000 times smaller than a living cell. When millions of quantum dots are mixed with water, ultraviolet light shows the different varieties that glow in yellow, orange and green.

To kill a superbug, Nagpal said a tube with size of a fingertip, can be very effective. "Perhaps this is the only treatment that is needed," he said. And if superbug back to adapt quickly, Nagpal said, researchers can quickly change the composition of the next quantum dots.

Chatterjee and Nagpal said it need to test many years before quantum dots are safe to use in humans. But the positive results so far and hope that someday, the particles of semiconductor that can help physicians overcome the superbug. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | VOA NEWS]
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Tuesday, January 10, 2017

A mysterious object believed to be "hiding" under the Antarctic ice sheet

Scientists believe, an unusually large object could change our knowledge of the history of the world. The objects hidden under the Antarctic ice sheet. Yes, this anomaly is believed to lurk a frozen region called Wilkes Land, an area of ​​243 square kilometers with a depth of 823 meters.

The researchers believe, the object is the remains of the massive asteroid, two-times greater than the Chicxulub space rock which touted as the cause of of the dinosaurs extinction.
The overall sightings of Earth's south pole. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1hmu1j)
If their explanation is correct, it means the asteroid is the cause of the extinction of the Permian-Triassic era, which kills 96% of sea creatures and 70% vertebrates that live in the soil surface on Earth.

The strangeness of nature called "Wilkes Land gravity anomaly" was first discovered in 2006, when NASA satellites see changes of gravity through the presence of a large object. Its location in the middle of the crater impact, diameter of 482 kilometers. The discovery was back in a matter of debate after a group of UFO hunters, Secure Team 10, posted a video about the peculiarities of the Earth's south pole.
Ice is seen floating at the South Pole. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1hmu1j)
"To this day, scientists could not conclude what exactly was 'hiding' under thick layer of ice," a narrator says in the video, as reported in the New York Post.

"These ice continent remains a continent shrouded in mystery until now." In fact, in the video also said, that Nazis once constructs a secret military base in the South Pole during World War II. The goal was as production base of their advanced aircraft.
A mountain rising permafrost western part of the South Pole. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1hmu1j)
The debate on the internet is still in progress. However, the scientists who first noticed the strangeness believe that the object was evidence of massive asteroid collision crater.

"The collision impact in Wilkes Land is much greater than the collision that wiped out the dinosaurs. It could be led onto a massive disaster at the time," said Ralph von Frese, a professor of geological sciences at Ohio State University, who discovered it in 2006.
"All the natural changes that occur due to the collision impact which certain to lead to an environment that is almost impossible to survive in it. It makes perfect sense many lives extinct after the massive collision event," he said. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | NEW YORK TIMES]
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Saturday, January 7, 2017

Is it true that there are other factors besides ice that triggered the Titanic tragedy?

The tragedy of the sinking of the Titanic on April 15, 1912 is still a debate despite having lasted more than a century ago. 

Recently, in a documentary entitled 'Titanic: The New Evidence' that aired on Channel 4 in the UK, a journalist and writer named Senan Molony outlines the causes of the sinking of the Titanic.
(Pictured: RMS Titanic) New evidence suggests there was something very wrong with the Titanic before the iceberg. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1hcr39)
"It was not as simple as collision with an iceberg and sank. It's a combination of many factors, such as fire, ice, and negligence," said Molony as quoted by Science Alert, on Tuesday, January 3, 2017.

The sinking factors of the Titanic is often overlooked is the fire. The Titanic photographs were auctioned showed black spots. Based on the photos, Molony said the black spots on the ship located near the coal bunker number six after the ship left Belfast in Northern Ireland bound for Southampton on the south coast of England.
New photos show dark marks on the hull, seen here near the centre of the image, just to the right of a group of people. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1hcr39)
The flame heats the walls of the vessel to a temperature of 1,000 degrees Celsius. High temperature makes the vessel wall became soft and not strong enough to survive when struck an iceberg.

"We had a metallurgist who said that the steel that reaches high temperatures will be fragile, its strength is reduced 75 percent," said Molony.

The sinking of the Titanic because of a fire ever put forward by Roben Essenhigh of Ohio State University in 2004. Titanic has been known to move faster than they should. Essenhigh said the ship fast motion may be triggered by an attempt to extinguish the fire.

Not all agree with the fire factors on the sinking of the Titanic. The British Titanic Society, David Hill, said, "The fire is definitely there."

"Does it have a big impact? In my opinion it does not make any difference. It just shows that after all these years, the old ship is still presenting new facts," he said. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | SCIENCE ALERT]
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Friday, January 6, 2017

Scientists found a new organ in the human body after centuries

Scientists have discovered a new organ in the human body? Yes, J. Calvin Coffey a professor of surgery at University of Limerick, Ireland has announced that the membrane which meander in the human gut is a new organ with the name of the mesentery.

"Reclassification of mesentery as an organ was universally relevant because it affects us all," Coffey said in a statement, as quoted by LiveScience, Tuesday, January 3, 2017.
The mesentery (yellow) connects the small and large intestines (pink). (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1hVz9O)
Scientists from the Mayo Clinic has previously been aware of the structure that connects the small and large intestines to the abdominal wall and tied in place. However, until now, the structure was considered a separate membrane by most scientists. And interestingly, in one of the initial description, Leonardo da Vinci was identified this membrane as a single structure. 

And Proff. Calvin Coffey and his colleagues looked at the past studies and literatures of the mesentery. He noted that throughout the 20th century, many anatomy books have explained the mesentery as a series of fragmented membrane. It's mean, the mesentery associated with various parts of the intestine. 

He led the study to view the mesentery in patients undergoing colorectal surgery and corpses. The findings of a study which concluded that these membrane is a separate organ, as published in The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology journal in November 2016 edition.
Proff. J. Calvin Coffey, a professor of surgery at the University of Limerick in Ireland, has concluded that the mesentery, which is a membrane found in the gut, is its own organ. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1hVz9O)
"By recognizing anatomy and structure of the mesentery, now scientists can focus on learning more about how the organ functions," said Coffey. According to him, scientists can learn about the diseases associated with the mesentery. If you can also understand the functions, and you can identify abnormal function, he said further.

According to the article, the continuous nature of the mesentery, for example, can serve as a means for the disease to spread from one part of the stomach to the other.

"In addition to studying the disease, researchers are also able to see a new approach to the mesentery for surgery," said the authors. The authors noted that many anatomical and other features of the mesentery that still need to be explained.

For example, mesentery classified into what kind of body system? "Do the mesentery should be seen as part of the intestine, vascular, endocrine, cardiovascular or immunological system, it was remain unclear because it has an important role in all of them," the authors write.

While many organs have different functions in the body, the different functions of the mesentery is still unknown.. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE]
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Thursday, January 5, 2017

Not a comet or asteroid, this strange celestial object is being approaching the Earth

An infrared telescope belonging to the NASA detects two objects that are approaching the Earth. But one of them, identified as 2016 WF9 made the scientists confusion.

NEOWISE telescope first spotted the WF9 on November 27, 2016. The object was apparently shot from the direction of the Jupiter and entered the path of Earth's orbit in 4.9 years.
An illustration of a comet pass through the moon and Earth. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1hVrqV)
And the WF9 estimated to be close to the Earth orbit on February 25, 2017. At that time the WF9 will be racing at a distance of about 51 million kilometers from the Earth. NASA said at that distance, the WF9 not endanger the inhabitants of Earth.

However, the astronomers are very curious about WF9 due to the object characteristic was unique, that is between the asteroids and comets.

According to NASA, the comet is a cosmic snowball, which is composed of gas, rocks, and frozen dust. The size is usually equivalent to a small town. When approaching the sun and exposured to heat, the comet is usually releasing dust and gas into space.
NASA NEOWISE Telescope was made to find potentially hazardous celestial objects. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1hVrqV)
And in 2015 Rosetta spacecraft of the European Space Agency (ESA) was recording the activity of comet 67P that produces a burst of gas and dust when the streaking toward the sun.

But the WF9 could not be classified as a comet. Its diameter is only about 0.5 to 1 kilometer. The color is darker and reflect less light that hits its surface. The amount of reflected light and orbits similar to other comets, but the WF9 not have the cloud of gas and dust that commonly owned by comets in general.

While the asteroid is a rock that surrounds the sun, size ranges from 1,000 km to the most minor form of dust particles. Usually they are found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter's, though some are approaching even entered the Earth (then called as a meteor).

The astronomers said that the space objects came from the same pathways of the WF9 possibility of having multiple places of origin. That means the possibility of WF9 previously was a comet. In addition, the object also alleged was thrown from a group of dark objects in an asteroid belt.

"Perhaps, in the course of time this object lost the majority of content," said James Bauer, a NASA astronomer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California.

If the WF9 confirmed to be a comet, it will be the 10th comet that discovered by NEOWISE since the telescope was activated in December 2013. But if it is defined as an asteroid, the WF9 will become the 100th asteroid discovered by NEOWISE.

NEOWISE itself is a NASA telescope has a task to detect the space objects approaching the Earth and potentially endanger civilization on this planet. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | THE SUN]
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