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Showing posts with label Archives. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Archives. Show all posts

Thursday, September 27, 2012

Know the Seismic Waves

Earthquake is a jolt in the earth's crust as a companion symptom of tectonic, volcanism activity, or debris that occurs in the earth. At the time of the earthquake, we can feel the vibrations or shocks on where we stand. Earth rocked sideways and upwards. Vibration or shock is seismic waves.

Seismic waves are very low frequency waves that spread through the earth. The emergence of the seismic waves caused by a shift in the Earth's crust segments or can be generated from the explosion at the top of the crust.

The rate of amplitude and direction of propagation of seismic waves depends on the type of seismic waves and the material in its path. Seismograph record the amplitude and frequency of seismic waves and generate information about the earth and the subsurface structure of the earth.
Types of seismic wave. (Picture from: http://www.physics.unc.edu/)
Seismic waves generated naturally as a result of shifting crust (plates) of the earth to the attention of seismologists (seismologists) and physicists to determine the center of the earth quake. While the seismic waves generated artificially as a result of an accidental explosion on the upper crust of the earth useful to geologists and physicists to study the state of the earth of the earth and help search for the sources of fossil fuels.

Seismic waves are divided into two types. First, body wave. Body wave consists of primary wave (commonly abbreviated as P waves) and secondary waves (commonly abbreviated as S waves). Body wave propagates through the earth outwards from the epicenter.

P waves typically arrive at the surface of the earth as a jolt. P waves move faster than S waves, so the P wave is the first wave recorded on seismographs (earthquake recording devices) and became the first wave of people in the area felt the quake. Because it is the first, the wave is called the primary wave.
Seismic wave mapping of the interior of the Earth. (Picture from: http://www.physics.unc.edu/)
P waves (also called compressional or longitudinal waves) travels through solids, liquids (liquid). and gas, and thus going through the whole body of the earth. P waves cause the transmission medium is a liquid, solid, or gas moving back and forth in the direction of the path of deployment. When P waves traveling through rock, the waves move / push tiny rock particles back and forth in the direction of wave propagation. The result is a series of strain and pressure back and forth. This incident is similar to what happens when we pull or a slinky stretch horizontally.

In the earth, the P wave propagates at a rate of about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) per second at the surface of the rock to about 10.4 kilometers (6.5 miles) per second near the earth's core (approximately 2,900 kilometers below the Earth's surface ). Accretion rate of the P wave to the depths of the earth due to increase hydrostatic pressure, which corresponds to changes in the composition of the rocks. In general, the accretion rate resulting P wave propagates with a curved path.
Seismic waves (Earthquakes) probe the interior of the Earth. (Picture from: http://www.physics.unc.edu/)
The appearance of the P wave was accompanied by a wave of S. S waves are also known as shear or transverse waves. The rate of propagation of the S wave and P wave arrival time resulted in two distinct waves separated when detected by seismographs. Separate arrival times can be used to determine the location of the epicenter.

S waves are transverse shear wave like a wave on the pull rope. Material moves up and down or from side to side. Like the P waves, S waves also spread to the curved trajectory.

S waves can only be spread through a solid medium for liquid and gaseous medium can not sustain shear stress. In the earth, the rate of increase of the S wave about 3.4 kilometers (2.1 miles) per second at the earth's surface up to 7.2 kilometers (4.5 miles) per second near the limit of the earth's core. S waves cause the dots on solid medium moves back and forth perpendicular to the direction of the spread of the wave. When the S waves move, these waves move rock particles outward and push the particles perpendicular to the wave trajectory. It results in the first period roling associated with earthquakes.

The second type of seismic waves are surface waves. Surface waves sometimes resemble waves in the water that moves up and down the earth's surface.
Animation of seismic waves. (Picture from: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/)
This animation shows the seismic waves generated by the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake. P-waves are shown in red; S-waves are shown in blue; Surface waves are shown in yellow. Phase arrival times are indicated on the vertical (Z) seismograms displayed at the top of the animation.

Seismograms are shown for:
COLA: College, Alaska
PFO: Pinyon Flat Observatory, California
SSPA: Standing Stone, Pennsylvania
CTAO: Charter Towers, Australia
DBIC: Dimbokro, Cote d'Ivoire
LBTB: Lobatse, Botswana

This animation is running 100 times faster than the waves actually traveled. Animation of PC program Seismic Waves written by Alan Jones.

Surface wave propagates in the Earth's surface at a rate of approximately 3.5 to 3.9 kilometers per second and slower than body waves. Because the surface wave has a low frequency, long duration of propagation, the width and amplitude of the surface wave is a kind of the most destructive seismic waves. Surface waves move the rock on man-made structures of the building foundation.

Surface wave consists of Rayleigh waves and Love waves. Rayleigh waves are surface waves similar to the rise and deployment of water surface waves. The existence of these waves was predicted long ago by a British physicist Lord Rayleigh in 1885. He was the first to express mathematically the existence of these waves.

Rayleigh waves traveling through the free surface in the form of elastic solids in the earth. The movement of these waves is a combination of longitudinal compression and dilation which then produce an elliptical motion at points on the surface of the earth. In all seismic waves, Rayleigh waves most often (all the time) to spread out and produce a long-duration waves on a seismograph.

Meanwhile, Love waves are surface waves that cause horizontal shifting of the earth surface. The word "Love" is used in the name of the wave is taken from the name of AEH Love. He was a British seismologists who first predicted the existence of these waves and mathematical modeling in 1911.

Love waves are usually spread a little faster than the Rayleigh wave. Love waves spread when a solid medium near the Earth's surface has a vertical elastic properties are diverse. Medium shift entirely by Love waves perpendicular to the direction of the spread of the wave. Energy deployment Love waves produce strong record on seismic stations. *** [GUN GUN GUNAWAN | PIKIRAN RAKYAT 13092012]
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Design and Buy HD via the Web.

Harley-Davidson (HD) is rolling out its 2013 model lineup. It includes Harley-Davidson Dyna Street Bob restyled model.

Dyna Street Bob 2013 gets a new twist that makes it more stylish appearance. Bobber (motorcycle's designation) has new face look, more beautiful.
2013 Harley-Davidson FXDB Dyna Street Bob. (Picture from: http://www.totalmotorcycle.com/)
There are no changes to the design, the model still selected classic tall handlebars with chrome models with round headlights. New style of alteration seen in the rear fenders are formulated neater. Juxtaposed with a round filter cover models to reinforce the aura of a classic two-tone color.
2013 Harley-Davidson FXDB Dyna Street Bob. (Picture from: http://www.totalmotorcycle.com/)
Besides the battery cover is made simpler to make it look more elegant. Place the license plate to the side and not on the back like a big bike. Handlegrip got an extra special rubber that serves to reduce the vibrations that make better driving comfort.
2013 Harley-Davidson FXDB Dyna Street Bob. (Picture from: http://www.totalmotorcycle.com/)
With Twin Cam 96 V-Twin engine, Dyna Street Bob 2013 is also part of the H-D1 program. Where consumers can choose a new style to design it on the web, and booked directly into the factory Harley-Davidson in Milwaukee, USA. HD has prepared 2,000 combinations on their website.
2013 Harley-Davidson FXDB Dyna Street Bob. (Picture from: http://www.totalmotorcycle.com/)
"As part of the restyle, new touch to the rear fender, air filter cover to the battery. There are also H-D1 program that allows owners to buy Bob Street with different style as you wish, "said Tony Pink, Harley-Davidson Styling Manager. *** [DIH | TOTAL MOTORCYCLE | PIKIRAN RAKYAT 14092013]
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Ozone and Life on Earth

Ozone (O3) is a molecule composed and bonded of three oxygen atoms. Bonds between the oxygen atoms in the ozone molecule is rather weak compared to the oxygen molecule consists of two atoms (O2), so one of the three oxygen atoms easily escape and react with other molecules.

Ozone was first discovered by Christian Friedrich Schonbein in 1840. Naming ozone is derived from the Greek, ozein meaning smell. Ozone is known as a gas that has no color.

The use of ozone has been performed for more than a century ago. Ozone is used for various purposes, ranging from clean drinking water, sterilization of raw food materials, to elaborate a variety of toxic organic compounds contained in wastewater. In the field of medicine, ozone is more often used after the discovery of the ozone producing equipment for medical sterilization by J Hansler in the mid-20th century. However, ozone is a toxic substance. This gas is very reactive and corrosive (rapidly cause corrosion on metal) and hazardous to human health if inhaled in large quantities.

Ozone is found naturally in the stratosphere. Approximately ninety percent of Earth's ozone is in the stratosphere. Stratosphere is one of the layers of the earth's atmosphere at an altitude between 20-50 kilometers above the earth's surface. The ozone layer in the stratosphere was first discovered in 1913 by Charles Fabry (1867-1945) and Henri Buisson.

The ozone layer in the stratosphere naturally formed mainly through a process fotodisosiasi where the sun has a very important role in this process. Ultraviolet rays emitted by the sun was able to break an oxygen molecule (O2) to form two single oxygen atom. Then every single oxygen atom is bonded to an oxygen molecule to form a molecule of ozone (O3).
Diagram illustrating the ozone-oxygen cycle. (Picture from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/)
The presence of beneficial ozone in the stratosphere protects the earth from the dangers of ultraviolet emission (UV) excessive sun. This ozone protects life on earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Because it is protecting the ozone in the stratosphere that is also called good ozone.

Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun. This radiation has a wavelength below 400 nanometers. The spectrum of this radiation (located at wavelengths between 290 nanometers and 320 nanometers) or better known as UV-B radiation. Increasing doses of UV-B radiation reaching the earth resulting in increased cases of skin cancer, lower yields, and ruin the lives of plankton and fish larvae.

Reaction formation and decomposition of ozone occurs naturally in a state of balance and continuously for centuries. Most of the ozone is formed and decomposes in the equatorial region where there are tropical rainforests were quite extensive. By nature, nature has arranged transport phenomena that will bring the gases contained in the earth's surface to the layer above it and distribute ozone into the higher latitudes, and eventually accumulates in the polar regions.
The process of ozone depletion. (Picture from: http://sopf.org/)
However, the balance of the formation and decomposition of ozone has been disrupted due to the increase of ozone-depleting substances or materials (ozone depleting substances / ODS), so the rate of decomposition of ozone faster than the rate of its formation. Damaging substances / thinning of the ozone layer in the lower stratosphere is produced by human activities on the earth's surface. These substances are capable of spreading to the stratosphere. This causes a decrease in the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere.
Ozone depleting substances contain some combination of chemical elements chlorine, fluorine, bromine, carbon, and hydrogen are called halozarbon. The compound consists of only chlorine, fluorine and carbon called cholorofluorocarbon (CFC). CFCs are widely used because it is stable with low toxicity and non-flammable. Because CFCs have chemical and physical properties suitable for coolant, solvents, and heat insulation, this material is widely used by industrial refrigerator, AC (air conditioner), gas booster (spray), foam plastic, fire extinguisher material, the solvent in the industry, and electronic equipments cleaning. If this material is released into the atmosphere by atmospheric transport phenomena, these materials will be lifted and diffused into the stratosphere. In this layer the material will be dissociated by ultraviolet radiation from the sun and breaks down into chlorine gas was very active damaging the ozone layer.
The climate system is complex, meaning that the ozone hole does indirectly alter the surface temperature and climate of the Earth. (Picture from: http://theconversation.edu.au/)
The monitoring of the ozone layer in the stratosphere has long made the developed countries since 1957. In 1985, researchers from the UK found a reduction in the total amount of ozone in the stratosphere during the Antarctic spring. In 1987, a monitoring station in Antarctica recorded a decrease in the total amount of ozone to be less than half the amount of ozone measured in 1970. This drastic decrease in ozone depletion has caused or is called the ozone hole (ozone hole).
Global emissions of ozone-depleting chemicals (CFCs, halons, HCFCs, and others) and their non-ozone depleting substitutes (HFCs) from 1950 to 2050, expressed as Gigatonnes of CO2-equivalent per year. The blue hatched regions indicate the emissions that would have occurred, in the absence of the Montreal Protocol, with 2–3% annual production increases in all ozone-depleting chemicals. Shown for reference are emissions for the range of CO2 scenarios from the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios. (Picture from: http://theconversation.edu.au/)
The discovery of the ozone hole has prompted the formulation of an international treaty known as the Vienna Convention 1985. The agreement aims to protect the environment and human health due to the depletion of the ozone layer. Then in 1987 established the Montreal Protocol. In the protocol was approved reduction and elimination of the production and consumption of CFCs, halon, and other similar substances that contribute to depleting the ozone layer. *** [THE CONVERSATION | SAVE OUR PLANET FOUNDATION | DEDE NURROSYID | PIKIRAN RAKYAT 13092012]
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Wednesday, September 26, 2012

BMW Concept Active Tourer

BMW is pulling the curtain back on the Concept Active Tourer, a little three-cylinder, front-wheel-drive plug-in hybrid that will debut in less than two weeks at the big French car conclave (2012 Paris Auto Show).
BMW Concept Active Tourer. (Picture from: http://gas2.org/)
This car boasts the eDrive concept that BMW is putting a lot of marketing energy into with its BMW i brand (Mini-E, BMW i8 electric supercar, i3 city car), extending eDrive for the first time to a model in what the company calls its "core BMW brand."

The Concept Active Tourer lands in the premium compact category, which BMW believes will be growing solidly (5 percent or more on an annual basis) in the next several years. The emphasis is on interior space for family use – BMW says "a high roof line and a compact transverse engine with front-wheel drive make it possible to create a generously sized interior."
BMW Concept Active Tourer. (Picture from: http://gas2.org/)
But it’s the front-wheel drive – "a drive concept which is new to the BMW brand," the company says — that will probably have most people talking about this vehicle in Paris. By presenting a futuristic interior design, luxurious and roomy. Panoramic roof made ​​the passengers feel at home in its cabin.

Concept car that brought hybrid system uses engine 1.5 liter turbocharged 3-cylinder to drive the two front wheels. Then also installed an electric motor which serves to drive the two rear wheels. That way, the car is very fuel efficient (40 km/liter) and low CO2 emissions (60 g/km).
BMW's plug-in hybrid cars. (Picture from: http://gas2.org/)
The car's hybrid system produces output power over 140 kW/190 hp. Car acceleration from 0-100 km/h in less than 8 seconds (better than most hybrids) with maximum speed of 120 km/h. Plug-in hybrid cars can run using electricity as far as 30 kms with a Lithium-ion battery that can be charged at home with a voltage of 220V. *** [DIH | GAS2 | EARTH TECHLING | PIKIRAN RAKYAT 21092012]
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Dangerous Loopholes of Samsung Galaxy

A dangerous bug was found in the Samsung Galaxy line of mobile phones. Cracks can deleted all data on the phone with just one click.

Cracks were discovered by researchers from the Technical University Berlin, Ravi Borgaonkar. He showed the results of his research at an Internet security conference in Argentina.
Ravi Borgaonkar demonstrating Galaxy handset flaws. (Picture from: http://betabeat.com/)
Borgaonkar explained that the TouchWiz interface used on the Samsung Galaxy variant has holes that can be exploited by hackers HTML code.
Samsung Galaxy Android. (Picture from: http://www.engadget.com/)
The way it works is very simple. Hackers only need to insert the HTML code into a web page, and while Samsung Galaxy users accessing the site, as it is also a code for the full wipe or reset is active.

When examined the code does contain a code to reset the Samsung Galaxy, and the hackers simply enter the code in a web page to activate the code reset automatically.
Samsung Galaxy S III, Galaxy S II and Galaxy S. (Picture from: http://www.engadget.com/)
As quoted from Slashgear, Wednesday (09/23/2012), the code can erase all data on the Galaxy S II, Galaxy S Advance, Galaxy Beam, Galaxy Ace. However, when the authors tried, the code can also be used on the Galaxy S III.

Mr. Borgaonkar, who reportedly wondered aloud what Samsung’s engineers were smoking when they created the vulnerable system, demonstrates how it works in the video below.
Viewers may need headphones to hear Mr. Borgaonkar clearly, but the shocked audience reaction at 2:10, when he uses a link from a tweet to demonstrate how quickly a malicious web page can reset the phone, is unmistakable.

Well, for those users who are curious about the Galaxy series, do not try typing that shortcut. Because it will reset your phone without any confirmation (option 'yes' or 'no') before! Beware...!!!! *** [SLASHGEAR | BETABEAT | DIGITAL SPY]
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QR Memories, Barcodes for Headstones

Barcode technology is usually used in supermarkets to determine the type and price of the goods to be purchased. However, the current barcode technology is not only used in the supermarket, at the funeral QR technology also can be applied.

The modern cemetery Chester Pearce, in Poole, Dorset, England applying barcode technology on a headstone. Barcode is located at the corner of the bottom of the headstone.

As quoted from Daily Mail, the application of technology to the headstone was intended to ascertain data on the deceased. Family left behind do not bother to write the date of birth or date of death on the headstone. All the detailed information on the profile of the deceased can be seen simply by scanning using a smartphone.
Headstones in the UK using barcode. (Picture from: http://eotika.blogspot.com/)
The barcode technology is called a QR memories. Not only the profiles, the family can also see a collection of photos and video of the deceased, in his lifetime. But of course the family are updating this information.

The Chester Pearce funeral director, Stephen Nimmo says the idea of ​​using these technologies is to provide services that can be used to help those left behind. Families do not need to wonder about who is buried there. By using a QR code they can easily find out all he wanted to know.
Scanning the QR code brings up the biography of the deceased. (Picture from: http://www.kiwilstudio.com/)
Even so, of course, required additional charges are not cheap to get these advanced features. Users are charged 300 pounds (U.S. $ 484 or Rp. 4.6 million) for the installation of QR code and additional cost 95 pounds (U.S. $ 147 or Rp. 1.4 million) to hire a website hosting. *** [GI | DAILY MAIL | PIKIRAN RAKYAT 13092012]
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Tuesday, September 25, 2012

Maternal Genes Found in Mice

Maternal feelings shown holding her son apparently formed by a gene. Researchers from Rockefeller University in New York, USA, have discovered the existence of genes that are responsible for feelings of maternal rats.
Mouse in a laboratory. (Picture from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/)
They found that mice engineered to suppress the expression "maternal gene" spend a little time to lick, feeding, and cleaning up their child. These conditions contrast with the rats from the control group who care for her child.

"There is a single gene responsible for motivating the parent to protect, feed, and raise their children," said study leader, Ana Ribiero, in findings published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on Wednesday September 19, 2012.

Previous research shows that there are regions in the rat brain called the medial preoptic, in charge of controlling aggression, sexual acceptance and care by the parent. However, what about the chemical mechanisms that affect the behavior, it is yet unclear.

Ribiero says, citing previous research, the nerve cells respond to estrogen, a female sex hormone-containing receptor alpha and estrogen in high levels. These chemicals are linked to the behavior of rat maternal care and sexual behavior.

"We lowered the level of the receptor in the medial preoptic female rats to examine the response of those without it," he said, as quoted by the Telegraph. The research team conducted experiments based on this fact.

As a result, mice with low levels of receptors in the brain to spend less time caring for their children. However, it did not affect the aggressiveness.

According Ribiero, manipulation of specific genes in specific nerve cell groups can drastically alter the expression of important biological behavior. *** [TELEGRAPH | MAHARDIKA SATRIA HADI | KORAN TEMPO 4002]
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Tablet or Laptop?

Tablet computers have drawbacks when used for typing, the lack of a physical keyboard. Typically, the owners of the tablet will purchase an additional accessory so that activities become more comfortable typing.

AsusTeK Computer Inc. Taiwanese manufacturer is reading this weakness. They then offer a hybrid tablet widescreen laptops named Asus Vivo Tab, with a 11.6-inch screen.

With a wide screen that, when separated from the keyboard, Vivo Tab will feel quite large as a tablet, especially for users with small hands.
Asus Vivo Tab. (Picture from: http://www.techshout.com/)
For comparison, Apple tablet, New iPad, has a diagonal length of 9.7 inches. While Samsung's latest tablet, the Galaxy Tab 10.1, has a 10.1 inch screen.

Unlike its cousin -Asus Vivo Tab RT- tablet made by Taiwanese manufacturer has an Intel Atom Clover Trail, making it more robust to process applications or games in full. This is very different from the Vivo Tab RT, which still uses a low-powered ARM-based processor.
Asus Vivo Tab. (Picture from: http://www.meetgadget.com/)
Asus Vivo Tab reinforced 2 gigabytes of RAM memory and storage capacity is quite a relief, amounting to 64 gigabytes. Vast capacity that makes the tablet is quite interesting for users who play a lot of applications at once intense and likes to download a lot of applications.

The tablet weighs 675 grams has a thickness of about 8.7 millimeters, with a super-quality IPS display and a resolution of 1,366 x 768 pixels. When turned on, the screen display is sharp and bright images, both inside and outside the room. Moreover, the user interface adopts Windows 8 operating system, which is patterned box, so that was refreshing.

One other attraction of this tablet is the digital pen shaped like an S-pen from the Samsung Galaxy Note 10.1. Features like it's going to create interesting competition between this two tablet from Korea and Taiwan.

It uses Wacom digital pen technology made to input data accurately and naturally hand writing. To maintain the quality of the audio, installed SonicMaster technology, which is used to output featured Asus notebook.

Vivo Tab rear camera capable of capturing images with a quality 8 mega-pixels, which is equipped with LED Flash. While the front camera, for activities webcam, 2 megapixel camera produces high quality video. The device is also equipped with nearfield communication technology, which can be used in the digital payments.

This tablet-which can be assembled into a laptop when combined with the keyboard-reminds users on tablet Asus output last year, the ASUS Transformer. This is the first tablet that combines a tablet design with a laptop. *** [ENDGADGET | TECHRADAR | BUDI RIZA | KORAN TEMPO 4002]
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Processor: Intel Atom Z2760
Operating system: Windows 8 multi-touch
Screen: 11.6-inch Super IPS viewing angle of 178 degrees
Resolution: 1,366 x 768
Memory RAM: 2GB
Storage capacity: 64 GB
Default application: Microsoft Office trial
Thickness: 8.7 millimeters
Weight: 675 grams
Price: U.S. $ 799 or Rp. 7.6 million (plus docking keyboard U.S. $ 199 or Rp. 1.9 million)
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Monday, September 24, 2012

Malaria spreads to the North Pole

Researchers at SF State have discovered
malaria in birds in Alaska, including the
Common Redpoll, above.. (Picture
from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/)
Malaria is no longer recognized as endemic tropical and subtropical regions. The disease is spread by mosquitoes is also found in birds in Alaska, the U.S. state that is located near the north pole. "Global climate change is encouraging malaria farther north," the alert to a study published in the journal PLoS ONE, issue of September 20, 2012.

The spread of malaria near the northern end of the earth potentially devastating arctic bird species that have never come across this disease. "These findings could help scientists understand the effects of climate change on the spread of human malaria caused by parasites of the same," said Ravinder Sehgal, a professor from San Francisco State University who was involved in the study.

The researchers examined blood samples collected from poultry four locations based on different latitudes in Alaska, the Anchorage (Alaska's largest city) as points south, Denali and Fairbanks as the mid-point, and a point north of Coldfoot. Sampling point distance from north to south stretches as far as 600 miles. Birds infected with malaria in Anchorage and Fairbanks.

The study them equipped with satellite images and other data to predict environmental changes due to global warming. Locations where the malaria parasite is able to survive in the future is also mapped. They found that in 2080 the disease will spread to the north Coldfoot and continue north. "Currently there is no avian malaria in areas above 64 degrees north latitude. However, in the future, with global warming, it likely would have changed," said Sehgal.

The researchers are still not sure how malaria spreads in Alaska. They are currently still collecting additional data to determine the species of mosquitoes that transmit the Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria.

Sehgal said the spread of malaria to the northern part of the earth is quite alarming. Therefore, many living species in the region that have not been exposed to malaria and is likely vulnerable to the deadly disease. *** [XINHUA | SCIENCEDAILY | MAHARDIKA SATRIA HADI | KORAN TEMPO 4002]
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7 Biggest Vehicles

Of course some kind of this vehicle that is rarely seen in everyday life. Since the vehicle is a great tangible machines and is designed and manufactured for a variety of mega-projects in remote locations and easily and efficiently realized.

Some of the vehicles or the largest machine ever built in the world, mostly used for digging or for mining purposes.

Here are five vehicles were involved:

1. Liebherr Hydraulic Shovel
One of the largest hidraulic excavator in the world. Liebherr Hydraulic Shovel- this giant produced in complex the Liebherr Group, the German manufacturing company and one of the largest in the world for a similar type. This tool is used for heavy work in the mines open. It has a weight of 656 tons.
Liebherr Hydraulic Shovel. (Picture from: http://en.wikipedia.org/)
With a Cummins diesel engine C 180 E, 16 cylinder 50.3 liter capacity and is able to produce power at 3,000 hp at 1,800 rpm engine speed, while the power to dig the soil is 1,500 kN. Fuel tank capacity is 13,000 liters while the hydraulic tank capacity is 4,600 liters. The maximum hydraulic pressure is 350 bar. Volume up to 36 m3 bucket, or the equivalent of 60 tonnes of payload at all.

2. Caterpillar 797F
Caterpillar 797F trucks with the highest charge. This big truck look like a home, made by Caterpillar factory from the United States. Load capacity of the truck is one of the highest and largest in the world. This model was introduced in 2008 and entered full production in 2009.
Caterpillar 797F. (Picture from: http://millers-supplies.co.uk/)
The latest variant is much bigger and stronger than previous models Caterpillar 797F series and has a capacity of 400 tons carrying capacity, while the previous series, 797B of 380 tons.

3. Komatsu D575A Superdozer
The largest bulldozer ever built at this time. Komatsu D575A Superbuldozer made by Komatsu Japan Ltd is currently the largest bulldozer ever made. Used in coal mining strip mining ribbon in North America.
Komatsu D575A. (Picture from: http://komatsu.mobileteka.org/)
Bulldozer has a height 4.88 meters long and 11.72 m and a bulldozer making the largest and strongest in the world.

4. Mobile Launcher Platform
Each MLP weighs 3,730,000 kg unloaded and roughly 5,000,000 kg with an unfueled Shuttle aboard, measures 49 m by 41 m, and is 7.6 m high. It was carried by a crawler-transporter, which measures 40 m by 35 m, and is 6.1 m high. Each crawler weighs about 3,000,000 kg unloaded, has a maximum speed of about 1.6 km per hour loaded, and has a leveling system designed to keep the launch vehicle vertical while negotiating the 5 percent grade leading to the top of the launch pad. Two 2,750-horsepower (2,050 kW) diesel engines power each crawler.
Mobile Launcher Platform. (Picture from: http://galaxywire.net/)
Originally designated the "Mobile Launcher", the MLP was designed as part of NASA's strategy for vertical assembly and transport of space vehicles. Vertical assembly allows the preparation of the spacecraft in a ready-for-launch position, and avoids the additional step of lifting or craning a horizontally-assembled vehicle onto the launchpad (as the engineers of the Soviet space program chose to do).

The Mobile Launcher Platform was set atop six legs inside the massive Vehicle Assembly building. The Solid Rocket Boosters were mounted on top of the MLP. The External Tank was then lowered between the two boosters and attached to them. After that, the orbiter was lowered into position and attached to the External Tank. The Crawler-Transporter then carried the combined platform and vehicle to the launch site, and deposited them there together. Once the launch was completed, the crawler-transporter retrieved the empty MLP from the pad to be readied for its next use.

5. Volvo NH15 BP Tanker 
One of the longest truck in the world. Volvo NH15 BP Tanker Road Train is a trucking concept used in remote areas of Argentina, Australia, Mexico, the United States and Canada to move large loads efficiently.

In Australia this vehicle is often called road trains, while in the United States and Canada are often called "triples", "turnpike double" or "rocky mountain doubles".
Volvo NH15 BP Tanker. (Picture from: http://en.wikipedia.org/)
Manufactured by the company Volvo in 1998. Manufactured by the company Volvo in 1998.

6. Terex 33-19 Titan
One of the largest truckload and largest ever made. Terex 33-19 Titan is one of the largest truckload operating until 1998. When fully loaded truck can reach speeds of 29.8 mph. Designed and built by Terex Division of General Motors in 1973.
Terex 33-19 Titan. (Picture from: http://www.carfunblog.com/)
After 13 years of operation Terex Titan is now stored and displayed in Sparwood British Columbia Canada.

7. Marion 6360 "Captain"
Largest land vehicle ever made. With a total weight of 28 million pounds, the captain is the excavator with the greatest power in the world. This giant machine built by marion power shovel in 1965. capacity of the bucket (bucket) to lift or carry materials weighing 300 tons.
Marion 6360 "Captain". (Picture from: http://classicconstructionmodels.blogspot.com/)
"Captain" is one of the two largest land vehicles ever built, and after a long operation finally retired in 1992. *** [DIH | PIKIRAN RAKYAT 21092012 | FROM VARIOUS SOURCE]
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