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Saturday, August 20, 2016

Is the 'Fifth force' of nature been found?

For decades, people knew of the existence of four of the fundamental forces (elements that make the universe survive, namely: gravity, electromagnetism and the nuclear forces, both weak and strong, that uniting atoms).

And now scientists may have discovered the fifth force (which may answer the big question of physicists related to what particle actually works behind the veil of dark matter mystery.
Galaxies such as this spiral, known as NGC 6814, are held together by mysterious dark matter. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dG5X4)
Dark matter is an invisible material, not identified, and not detected as well, which is believed to be the majority materials which formed the universe (about 85 percent). It formed when the universe was created billions of years ago, in a massive explosion known as Big Bang.

Because it is not absorb or emit the light, so that the existence of dark matter can not be proven directly. It's called 'dark' but not as scary, but it is not yet within reach of human knowledge today.

"If true, this is a revolutionary findings," said the study author, Jonathan Feng, a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of California, Irvine, as quoted of LiveScience on Wednesday, August 17, 2016.

"If confirmed in further studies, the findings related to possibility of the fifth force will change our understanding of the universe, with the consequence is merger between the four powers (known previously) with the dark matter."

Feng and his colleagues analyzed data collected recently, and used by physics experiments at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, which is trying to find the 'dark photon' (a hypothetical indicator of the existence of mysterious dark matter).

Experts in Hungary detect interesting evidence of subatomic particles that were previously unknown, which is 30 times heavier than electrons and believed to be a 'dark photons'.

"The experiment can not be claimed that it is a new force," said Feng. "Experts only see the excesses of events that indicate a new particle, but it is not clear to them whether it is a particle of matter or force carrying the particles."

A new study conducted Feng and his team showed that found by the scientists in Hungary is not the 'dark photon' but 'protophobic X boson' (a strange particles whose existence could indicate the fifth force in the universe).

The electromagnetic force impacted on protons and electrons, but it turned out new particles interact only with protons and neutrons, within very short intervals.

"There's no other bosons which have been observed, and have similar characteristics," said another writer, Timothy Tait, who is also a professor of physics and astronomy at UC-Irvine. "Sometimes we refer to it as 'X boson', 'X' means unknown.
Illustration of a table of four forces of nature. (Picture from: http://adf.ly/1dG58h)
Fifth forces may be associated with electromagnetic and nuclear forces (strong or weak), as 'a manifestation of a larger force and fundamental'," said Feng. He added that the 'normal' material and the power of the universe has a parallel 'dark' sector (which has the material and power its own).

"There is a possibility that these two sectors 'talk' to each other and interact with each other through interaction somewhat veiled but fundamental," said Feng.

"This dark sector can manifest itself as a protophobic force (which we see as a result of the Hungary experiment). In a broader sense, it fits with research that aims to understand the nature of dark matter."

Although that's interesting speculation, but the researchers emphasize it was the beginning of a new interpretation. Further researche and experimentations are needed to strengthen the hypothesis. Such particles should also be observed in accelerators.

The good news, says Feng, many scientists were able to follow up on these findings. "Because of these new particles were so light, there are many groups working in small laboratory experiments around the world to follow up the initial claims. And now they know where to look," said Feng. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | LIVESCIENCE]
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