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Monday, February 9, 2015

Organisms without evolution of more than 2 billion years found

An international team of scientists has found evidence of the greatest lack of evolution ever reported. It happened on one type of microorganisms in the sea in seemingly not evolved more than 2 billion years.

But the researchers say, the lack of evolution in organisms actually supports the Charles Darwin theory of evolution. The findings published in the journal the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The scientists examined 1 billion years old sulfur bacteria and preserved in rocks of coastal waters in Western Australia. By using advanced technology, they discovered that it looks the same bacteria as bacteria from the same area of 2.3 million years ago. And both are a set of bacteria that can not be distinguished from modern sulfur bacteria found in the mud of the beach in Chile.
1.8 billion year old fossilized bacteria preserved in rock. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1BVgr0d)
"It is surprising that life did not evolve to more than 2 billion years; almost half of Earth's history," said J William Schopf, UCLA professor and the study leader. He is a professor of earth science, planetary and space in the UCLA College.
Scientists say that a type of deep-sea microorganism has not evolved in more than 2 billion years. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1BVgr0d)
"Given that evolution is a fact, the absence of evolution need to explain," he said. Charles Darwin's writings on evolution more focused on species that have been changed repeatedly from the non-evolved. So how do scientists explain that species evolve longer live without?
A section of a 2.3 billion-year-old rock bearing fossils (the dark areas) that are essentially identical to ones that are 500 million years younger, and to modern microorganisms that live in seawater mud. (Picture from: http://bit.ly/1BVgr0d)
"The rules of biology are living beings did not evolve unless the physical environment or its biological change, which is consistent with Darwin," said Schopf, who is also Director of the UCLA Center for the Study of Evolution and the Origin of Life.

"The environment in which these microorganisms live, basically unchanged for 3 billion years," he said.

"These microorganisms can adapt well to their environment that is simple, very stable physically and biologically," he said.

"If they exist in an environment that does not change, but however they evolve, then it would indicate that our understanding of the evolution of Darwin's really flawed."

Schopf says his findings provide further scientific evidence on Darwin's theory. "It fits perfectly with the ideas of Darwin," he said.

Schopf analyzed fossils come from the increase in the earth's oxygen levels are quite large, known as the Great Oxidation Event, which scientists believed to be between 2.2 to 2.4 billion years ago.

The event also produced a dramatic increase in sulfuric and nitric --satu only the nutrients needed for the survival of microorganisms in environmental water mud laut-- who say scientists allow bacteria to grow and multiply.

Schopf use several techniques to analyze fossils, including Raman spectroscopy (allowing scientists to look into the rocks to determine their composition and chemistry) and confocal laser scanning microscope that makes the fossils in 3D. He pioneered the use of two techniques to analyze the microscopic fossils preserved in ancient rocks. *** [EKA | FROM VARIOUS SOURCES | SCIENCEDAILY | GIZMAG]
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